A VERY WARM WELCOME VISITORS

Saturday, October 28, 2017

THE JINN - A SHORT ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE, PART 8.


THE JINN – Part 8, Continued.

The jinn and marriage:

Allah The Almighty says: "And among His Signs is this, that He created for you mates from among yourselves, that ye may dwell in tranquility with them, and He has put love and mercy between your (hearts): verily in that are Signs for those who reflect" (Ar-Rum: 21). Allah The Almighty also says: ''O people! be careful of (your duty to) your Lord, Who created you from a single being and created its mate of the same (kind) and spread from these two, many men and women; and be careful of (your duty to) Allah, by Whom you demand one of another (your rights), and (to) the ties of relationship; surely Allah ever watches over you" (An-Nisaa': 1). And among His Signs is this, that He created for you wives from among yourselves... [30:21]  In the above verses, mate and mates refer to spouses from the same kind, i.e., humankind.

The Jinn also have conjugal relations,  as is evident from this verse: "Therein (in heaven) are (women) of modest gaze, whom neither human being nor Jinn have touched before."  (Qur’an 55:56)  A pious jinni enters into marriage or nikah with a jinniya, also called ‘Pari.  Another verse establishes that they beget children:  "Will you then take (Iblis) and his offspring as protectors in preference to Me, although they are an enemy to you?" (Qur’an 18:50)  Qataadah said: "The children of the Shaytaan produce offspring just as the children of Adam produce offspring, but they are greater in number." (Laqt al-Marjaan, p. 51).  The author of Lawaami al-Anwaar al-Bahiya mentions a hadith as follows: "The jinn have children in the same way that the sons of Adam have children, but theirs are more in number."

Can humans and jinn intermarry?

According to the opinion of Muslim Jurist Al Maawardee (972/1058 c.e.), ‘the intellectual rejects the possibility of sex between human and jinn due to their differences in species, and nature and senses. Man is corporeal, Jinn are incorporeal. Thus mixing, would not be possible with such a difference, and offspring would be inconceivable’. [Al Jaami li Ahkaam al Quran vol 13 p 211].  

However, as pointed out by Hafiz Ibn Kathir, Ath-Tha`labi transmitted on the authority of Sa`id Ibn Bashir on the authority of Qatadah after An-Nadr Ibn Anas after Bashir Ibn Nahik, after Abu Hurairah that Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) said: “One of Bilquis ‘s parents was from among the jinn.”  After citing the genealogy, the Shaykh stated that the father of Bilquis got married to a woman from the Jinn whose name was Raihanah Bint As-Sakan who gave birth to Balqamah to be later known as Bilquis.  Bilquis is known in the Bible as the Queen of Sheba. 
Otherwise too, experts tell us that those who have seen female Jinn have fallen in love with them because of their beauty. 

Qadhi Badr al-Din al-Shibli al-Hanafi in his Aakam al-Marjan fi Ghara’ib al-Akhbar wa Ahkam al-Jann, quotes many early Muslims, such as Tha’alabi, Uthman ibn Sa’id al-Dari, A’mash and Abu Yusuf Saruji, who held the view that not only is human-Jinn inter-marriage possible, but rather, there are instances where such marriages have occurred. (Aakam al-Marjan P: 98-104)  Based on a few reports from the earlier generations, Imam Suyuti too indicated the instances of inter-marriage between humans and Jinn. According to him, Ibn Abbas ® said that epicenes are the sons of the Jinn and are conceived when men have intercourse with their wives during menses which act is forbidden by Allah (swt) and His Messenger (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam).  Hence, in this case, the Shaitan precedes the man in the sexual act so that when the wife gets pregnant, she gives birth to an epicene, i.e. the child having the characteristics of both male and female.  Shaykh Ibn Taymiyyah said that humans and Jinn have got married and have had children as a result of their marriage. (See: Laqat al-Marjan fi Ahkam al-Jann by Suyuti)  According to the Hanafi jurist, Imam Ibn Abidin this concept [of human-Jinn inter-marriage] is a possibility, because their (Jinn) taking various forms [including the human form] is proven by many Hadiths and incidents. This is why it is reported from the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) that he forbade the killing of certain snakes [since it may be a Jinn in the form of a snake]. (Radd al-Muhtar ala al-Durr al-Mukhtar 3/5)

However, regarding the permissibility of this inter-marriage, jurists have stated that human beings and the Jinn being two different species their marriage is eternally prohibited.   Allah Most High says: “He (Allah) is the One who has created you from a single soul, and out of him created his wife, so that he may find comfort in her.” (Surah al-A’raf V 189) and: “O people, fear your Lord who created you from a single soul, and from it created its match, and spread many men and women from the two.” (Surah al-Nisa, V 1) (See: Mughni al-Muhtaj, 3/232)  Many classical authors such as Imam Ghazali, Imam Ar-Razi, Imam Zuhri, Hakam, Qatada, Hasan Basri and others are of the view that such a marriage is not permitted.

In short, marriage between a human being and Jinn kind is possible, extremely rare, but not permitted.

Continued in Part 9.


NASIR

Friday, October 27, 2017

THE JINN - AN ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE PART 7.


THE JINN – Part 7 continued:

Types of Jinn:

Abu Tha`labah al-Khushni says that the Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) says: “The jinn are of three types: a type that has wings and they fly through the air; a type that looks like snakes and dogs;
and a type that stops for a rest then resumes its journey.” (Reported by At-Tahawi in Mushkil Al-’Athar). According to Ibn Jareer, Wahb ibn Munabbih, who was from among the Tabiian, said:  “The jinn are of different types. The pure jinn are spirits who do not eat, drink, die or produce offspring. And there are other types who do eat, drink, produce offspring, get married and die. These are the female demons, ghouls, and the like.”(Lawaami’ al-Anwaar, 2/222).  However, there is no evidence for what Wahb said.  It is also said that Jinn have ranks among them according to their powers and their degree of rebellion.  We cannot be sure of their authenticiy except for the sources from the Quran and the Sunnah.     Al-Jahiz states: “People distribute jinn into ranks. If the jinni lives with humans, he is called ‘Aamir. If he is a jinni that attacks young boys, he is called Ruh (pl. arwaah). If he is a malicious, haughty being, then he is a demon. If he is stronger than a demon, he is then a Marid. If he is more powerful than a Marid, then he is an Ifreet.”

Regarding the Jinn who fly, these are also the Jinn that used to eavesdrop on the heavens, to get information on people. They were used by fortune tellers. After the coming of Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w), these Jinn could not go near the heavens, because they would get stuck by balls of fire. The angels speak in the clouds about things that will happen on earth, certain Jinn eavesdrop close to heaven and relay the messages to their masters the fortune tellers, who along mixed with that information mix hundred of lies.

Now, Maarids are rebellious Jinn and worse than the Shaitan Jinn. According to Surah as-saaffat (chapter 37, verse:7) "wa hifzum min kule shayateen, maarid" [and (there is) a safeguard against every rebellious Shaitan, maarid].  They are old, ancient and they are powerful but they are very malicious and evil. They are deadly, they teach magicians on magic. So many magicians,  if they are powerful enough, will have a Maarid under their keep. They are also known as Blue Jinn and are often associated with the wish-granting Jinn. 

Ifreet is one of the most powerful of all Jinn. They come in good and bad. We can find a reference in Surah an-Naml where Hazrat Sulaiman (Solomon) is interested in getting the throne of Queen of Sheba before her arrival to his kingdom for submission:  38. He said (to his own men): "Ye chiefs! which of you can bring me her throne before they come to me in submission?" 39. Said an 'Ifrit, of the Jinns: "I will bring it to thee before thou rise from thy council: indeed I have full strength for the purpose and may be trusted."  Hazrat Sulaiman (a.s.) wanted the job done faster than what an Ifreet could accomplish.  So in the next verse, we learn:  40. Said one who had knowledge of the Book: "I will bring it to thee within the twinkling of an eye!" Then when (Solomon) saw it placed firmly before him, he said: "This is by the Grace of my Lord!- to test me whether I am grateful or ungrateful! and if any is grateful, truly his gratitude is (a gain) for his own soul; but if any is ungrateful, truly my Lord is Free of all Needs, Supreme in Honour !"  We also know that during his heavenly Night Journey Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) encountered an Ifreet.  

Khubuth: These are the ones that dwell in the toilets and can be summoned by evil magicians for assistance. There is a specific supplication to be said when going to the toilet, to protect us from the male and female khubuth “allaahumma inni a’oodhu bika min al-khubthi wa’l-khabaa’ith (o allaah, i seek refuge with you from the male and female devils, khubthi, khabaa'ith (male and female).

Khinzab: These are the ones that disturb us during prayers. They are the devil’s helpers.

Aamir (dweller): If the jinni is one of those who live in houses with people, they call him ‘Aamir (dweller), pl.‘Ummaar. Prophet Muhammad (saw) told us to warn a Jinn that lives in your house (mostly in the form of a dark black snake) – three times. If it does not leave the house on the third time, you then Kill it, because it is not a Jinn but a Devil.

Rooh (spirits):  If the jinni is one of those who interact with children, they call them Ruh, pl. Arwaah (spirits). We hear a lot from our children seeing cartoons in real life. Ones who are scared of water speak of the same cartoonish things appearing in water to them.

Ghoul – Si’lah (Jinn Magicians):  According to a celebrated author, the following tradition:
"The Ghoul is any Jinn that is opposed to travels, assuming various forms and appearances; and affirms that several of the Companions of the Prophet saw Ghouls in their travels; and that before Islam, 'Umar among them saw a Ghoul while on a journey to Syria, and struck it with his sword."  Ibn Kathir said in his Tafseer, that “ghoul” is used for the jinn when it appears at night. Al-Jaahiz said, “It is the name for every jinn that the traveler comes across, appearing in different forms and shapes, both male and female.”  Furthermore, Prophet Muhammad (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) also said:  “No one can change the image in which he was created. But jinn have some magicians among them as do humans, so when you see them (ghul), give the call to prayers (Adaan).”  And it will go away. Ghoul, however, is considered the male magician, and Si’lah the female.  They dwell in deserts, deserted islands and places where there is no human. They are also said to dwell in graveyards and dirty, dingy places.  The people before Islam described them as having a cat-like face, canine teeth, and a forked tongue, and who appeared and disappeared suddenly. According to Arabian folklore, there are several types of ghouls.  They are blood-drinking creatures that feed on human flesh. The female ghoul has the ability to appear like a normal woman who marries an unsuspecting human who becomes her prey.  As for Si’la, some Arab Geographers have stated that there is an island in the sea of China (Sin) called "the island of Si'la" inhabited by these demons.  They are described as creatures of hideous forms, supposed to be Shaitans, the offspring of human beings and Jinn, who eat men.

Al-nasnas – Shiqq: Strangest of all, described as a man split into two, having half a body. Al-Jahiz speaks, that if a Shiqq encounters a human, it beats him till he dies. The Shiqq is a lower form of Jinn.   We already see Half-man diagrams in Witchcraft charms (key/portal for the demons). There might be a connection between a Shiqq and Jinn. But then a Hadith from al-Sahih:  “Some people of Aad rebelled against their prophet. God transformed them into nasnas, with one foot and one hand. They hop like birds and graze like beasts.”  This means people probably put another form of visible creature into a category of Jinn. Only Allah knows.

Hinn: They are the weak Jinn and they especially like to appear as dogs.

Jann: They can take the forms of whirlwinds and white camels and they live in the desert.   They are excellent shape-shifters.  They have the power to hide or reveal oases in the desert.  They are the enemies of the ghoul.

Shaitan (devil – demon) If the jinni is wicked then he is a Shaytan (devil) (plural: Shayateen.)  It is mentioned in 100 verses of the Qur’an, where it mostly points to Demons (Devils) yet some places it points to Satan (Iblees).  Devil (Shaitan) refers to a type of Jinn representing Pure Evil. Most scholars claim that a Jinni may convert to Islam but a Shaytaan, in specific, can never become a Muslim.
Then, there is something from the Jinn which is called the Qareen, which Allaah has caused to accompany every human being. The existence of the Qareen is established by the Quran and the Sunnah. Allaah The Almighty Says (what means): {His [devil] companion will say, "Our Lord, I did not make him transgress, but he [himself] was in extreme error."} [Quran 50:27] According to Al-Qurtubi and Al-Mahdawi, may  Allaah  have  mercy  upon  them, the ‘companion’ in this verse means the devil.  This qareen pushes a person to do evil things and to disobey Allaah.  It was narrated that ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Mas’ood ® said: The Messenger of Allaah (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) said: “There is no one among you but a companion from among the jinn has been assigned to him.” They said, “Even you, O Messenger of Allaah?’ He said, “Even me, but Allaah helped me with him and he became Muslim (or: and I am safe from him), so he only enjoins me to do that which is good.”  The Urdu word for Qareen is Hamzad.  The more evil we commit then the closer friendship we will develop with the Qareen that is appointed to us and the more weaker we will be to his whispers and when he tempts us to do certain things. In order to repel the effects of the Qareen we need to do as many good deeds as possible including recitation of Qur'an particularly Ayatul Kursi, remembering and glorifying Allah as much as we can, being the best towards others, maintaining ties of kinship and so on. We need to constantly remember Allah and do our utmost to abide by the commands of Allah and follow the Sunnah of Rasulallah (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam).  A Muslim must believe in the existence of such a companion because it entails believing in the texts of the Quran and the Sunnah.

A very popular term we often hear especially in the sub-continent of India and Pakistan is “Muwakkil”, also known as ‘Khodam” in the Arab world.  According to Mahmoud Shelton, a Muwakkil is an angel who is in charge of safeguarding the secrets corresponding to a particular letter of the Arabic alphabet, and in this context, each letter is also associated with a jinni.  In other words, Muwakkils and Khodam are the guardians of the holy letters of the Qur’an and the 99 beautiful Names of Allah (swt).  According to Islamic scholars, Muwakkils are created of half-light (nur) and half smokeless-fire, and they can be summoned during a Wazifa or an Islamic ritual.  Under each Muwakkil there are high-ranking Jinn who can be used by pious Islamic healers.  However, Muwakkils are stronger and more powerful than the Jinn so that the Jinn who are under the command of Muwakkil can kill 1000 Jinn within seconds.  It is commonly known in the Muslim world that every name of Allah (swt) has a Muwakkil constantly praying and repeating that name.   A pious believer who constantly prays and repeats these Mighty Names of Allah (Ism-e-Azam) attracts the corresponding Muwakkil who will help him in attaining his legitimate desires. The power of Ism-e-Azam is such that on the constant practice of reciting the Names, the reciter may even witness the angel one day. 

Continued in Part 8.

NASIR

Thursday, October 26, 2017

THE JINN - A SHORT ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE, PART 6.


THE JINN – PART 6 continued:

Jinn can take the forms of snakes and appear in front of humans:

We learn from Ibn Taimiyyah's Essay on Jinn (translated by the Wahhabi scholar, Bilal Phillips):  It was narrated that Abu Sa‘eed al-Khudri ®  said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu alayhe wasallam) say: “In Madinah there are some of the jinn who have become Muslims. Whoever sees any sign of these inhabitants, let him warn him for three days, then if he appears after that let him kill him, for he is a devil.” By “inhabitants” here it is meant the “snakes” that may live in houses.  It is for this reason that the Prophet (sal Allaahu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam) has forbidden the killing of the snakes found in the houses, out of fear that they may be jinn that have embraced Islam. One of the Companions of the Prophet (Sallallahu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam) killed one of the snakes in the house and this led to his death. Muslim has recorded it in his Sahih that Abu al-Saib ® went to Abu Saeed’s ® house and found him praying. Abu al-Saib was waiting for him to finish his prayer when he heard some rumbling in the bundles of wood which were lying in the corner of the house. He looked and he found it was a snake. He was about to kill it when Abu Sa’eed ® gestured to him to sit down. After the prayer, Abu Sa’eed ® pointed to a room and he said, “Do you see this room? “Yes,” answered al-Saib ® Abu Sa’eed ® said, “There was once a man who was a newly-wed and we went to participate with Nabi (Sallallahu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam) in the Battle of the Trench. He used to ask the Prophet’s permission to go to his wife and the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam) cautioned him to take along his weapons for he feared [an attack from behind by] the tribe Quraidha. The man took his weapons and when he returned to his family he found his wife standing between the doors of the apartment. He was enraged from jealousy and took a stab at her with his spear. She told him to keep his spear away and to enter the house to see what had made her go outside. He entered and found a big snake on the bed. He struck it with his spear and pierced it. He was bent upon taking it outside, but the snake had enough strength to bite him. No one knows who died first from that incident, the snake or the man. The people made mention of this incident to Nabi (Sallallahu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam) asking him to ask Allah to bring that man back to life. Instead, the Prophet (Sallallahu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam) said, “Ask forgiveness for our companion. Prophet(Sallallahu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam) said, ‘Verily in Madinah there are Jinn who have accepted Islam, so if you see any of them, ask them to leave over a period of three days, but if one appears after that, kill it for verily it is a devil.’ In another narration collected by Muslim,  the Prophet(Sallallahu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam) is reported to have said, ‘Verily these houses have snakes, so if you see any of them, ask it to leave three times. If it leaves, fine, otherwise kill it,  for it is a disbeliever for sure.’ Then he said, ‘Go and bury your comrade.’ ”  This was due to the fact that killing jinn without just cause is as forbidden as killing a human without just cause. Aggression is forbidden in all cases. It is not allowable to oppress anyone, even a disbeliever. ln this regard the Almighty has said: Do not let your dislike for a people cause you to be unjust. Be just, for it is closer to being God-fearing …) (Surah Maa-idah/05, v:8)  Since house-snakes could be Jinn, they are warned three times to leave. If they are in fact Jinn and they do not leave, they may be killed, and if they are snakes they may be killed likewise. Jinn who continue to scare humans by exposing themselves in snake form may be repelled by whatever will prevent them from doing further harm, even if it means killing them. However, killing them without just cause is not allowed in Islam. [Ibn Taimiyah’s Essay on Jinn]

"Do not kill the jinn, except every one (snake) with two streaks on the back, for they cause miscarriages and take away the eyesight. Therefore, kill them." The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "Snakes are the forms of the transmutations of the shape of the jinn in the same way that the apes and swine were transmutations of the tribe of Israel." [This hadith was recorded by at-Tabaraani and Abu ash-Shaikh in Al-Udhma with a Sahih chain.

According to an Aalim, if a snake appears again and again in the house, esp. a black snake,  a bowl of milk should be placed in the house.  Then with a loud voice it should be declared: O snake, under the oath of Suleiman a.s.,   if you are a Jinn drink the milk, and don’t come here ever again.  This is the tried and effective method.

Jinn cannot take the form of Holy Prophet (sal Allahu alahi wasallam). He said: “Whoever sees me in vision or dream sees me (truly), for Satan cannot take on my form, and the believer’s dream is one-forty-sixth part of the prophecy.”

Food of Jinn:
It was reported that bones are food for the jinn. Among the Ahaadeeth that are reported in this regard is the Hadeeth reported by Muslim that the jinn asked the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) for food and the Prophet replied: “You will have every bone on which the name of Allaah has been mentioned; when it falls into your hands, it will be covered with flesh. And the dung (of the camels) is fodder for your animals.” Then the Prophet  sallallaahu `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) said (to his Companions): “Do not use them (bones and dung) to clean yourselves after relieving yourselves, for they are the food of your brothers (jinn).” [Muslim] The Jinn sometimes eat and drink even with us. This has been reported in several ahadeeth, such as the narration of Ibn Umar in which he related the Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) said, "Shaytan eats and drinks with his left hand." Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) said: "When any one of you eats, let him eat with his right hand, and when he drinks, let him drink with his right hand, because the Shaytaan eats with his left hand and drinks with his left hand. "[Saheeh al-Muslim, 3764] On the authority of a most trusted follower Yazid Ibn Jabir, Ibn Abu ad-Dunya' reported in his Maka’id ash-shaytaan, a Mawquf tradition (i.e. a hadith which reaches the Sahabah, regardless of continuity in the chain of transmission): "There are Muslim jinn residing in the ceilings of Muslim homes. Whenever the people eat, the Jinn descend and eat with them; Allah sends them to protect that household."  This hadith is also reported in Ibn Hajar’s Fath al-Bari, Ash-Shabli’s Akaam al-Murjaan, and Imam Sayuti’s Ad-Dur al-Manthur and Lafdh al-Murjaan.

Of course, the disbelieving Jinn eat and drink anything on which the name of Allah is not mentioned.  Jabir Ibn Abdillah reported that the Prophet said:  "When a person enters his house and mentions the name of Allah, and does the same when eating, Satan says (to his companions): 'You have no place to spend the night, and no evening meal;' but when he enters without mentioning the Name of Allah, Satan says: 'You have found a place to spend the night,' and when he does not mention the Name of Allah whilst eating, Satan says: 'You have found a place to spend the night and an evening meal. [Sahih Muslim, Imam ibn Hanbal, ibn Majah, ibn Hibban, and Abu Dawud.]

Continued in 7.

NASIR

Wednesday, October 25, 2017

THE JINN - A SHORT ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE PART 5.


THE JINN PART 5 CONTINUED:

The jinn live upon the same earth as humans and are also found  in the ruins, cemeteries and dilapidated areas, as well as the places where there are many impure things, such as, bathrooms, hashish dens, the places of the camels. For that reason, Ibn Taimiyyah  said, those people who are close to Satan usually inhabit such areas.  We often notice Magicians visiting such places at night times.  As related in a hadith by Ibn Masud ®,  they live in the garbage so as to eat the leftover food discarded by human beings.  Al-Hafiz has said that in human dwellings the Jinn live in the ceiling of the house and join the occupants at the meal times. Qatadah related from 'Abdullah ibn Sarjas who said, "The Messenger of Allah forbade urination into a hole." Said Qatadah, "What is disliked about urinating into a hole?" Said he, "It is the residence of the jinn." [Hadith: Ahmed, an-Nasa’I, Dawud, al-Hakim and Baihaqi.  Ibn Khuzaimah and Ibn as-Sakin classified it as sahih]  According to a hadith the devils love to sit between the shade and the sunlight; mostly in alleys. For this reason,  the Prophet (peace be upon him) forbade the Muslims to sit in such places.  Another hadith: “If you can, do not be the first one to enter the marketplace. And do not be the last to leave it. For they are the places of Satan and therein he raises his banner.”  Zayd ibn Arqam reported: The Apostle of Allah (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) said, “These privies [public bathrooms] are frequented by the Jinn and devils [i.e. any jinn in general]. So when anyone amongst you goes there, he should say: ‘I seek refuge in Allah from male and female shaitaan.’” [Dawud: Book 1: Hadith 6]  Besides these dwellings, the Jinn are also known to live underground and within water. Because of their dwellings most jinn carry a foul stench. Many of them avoid the daylight and usually come out during the night. The fact that jinn hide in the shade of the sunlight outdoors and in the shadows of water streams, has been confirmed by many researchers. Besides these dwellings, the Jinn are also known to live underground and within the water. Because of their dwellings most jinn carry a foul stench.   Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) said that non-believer Jinn hate fragrance such as musk, while the believing Jinn like fragrance.  Many of them avoid the daylight and usually come out during the night. Jinn in both Morocco and Syria were associated with the countryside and underground dwellings.  In the 1980s,  when I visited Bahrain, a Bahraini friend pointing out a new building which was standing on a busy thoroughfare said that no human beings were residing there as it was inhabited by Jinn.  However, the Jinn avoid human civilization and live far way in the deserts.

Powers of Jinn:
In Majmua al-Fataawaa, Shaikh Ibn Taimiyyah has stated that Jinn can appear as humans, animals, snakes, scorpions, camels, cows, sheep, horses, mules, donkeys or anything else. The black dog is the devil among dogs, and the jinn often appear in that form, and also in the form of black cats, because the black colour is more able to concentrate devilish power than other colours, and it concentrates heat. The Jinn can move from place to place very fast; and can carry objects and people along with them. From Majmu-al-fatwa of Ibn Tamiyyah, we find stories about people who used to travel from place to place through the air – they were all carried by the Jinn.  This ability is also confirmed from the Quran that when Sulaiman (as) asked his men whether there is anyone who will bring him the throne of Bilqis (Queen of Sheba – who was on her way to surrender to Sulaiman (a.s.): "Solomon said to his own men: 'Ye Chiefs! which of you can bring me the throne of Queen of Sheba before she and her envoys come to me in submission? Said an Ifrit, of the Jinn: 'I will bring it to thee before thou rise from thy council: indeed I have full strength for the purpose and may be trusted." "Said one who had knowledge of the Book: 'I will bring it to thee within the twinkling of an eye!' Then when (Solomon) saw it placed firmly before him, he said: 'This is by the grace of my Lord!" — Qur'an, sura 27 (An-Naml), ayat 38-40.  This traversing the earth without moving has been termed as “Tay al-ard” which is defined as  "A type of  marvel in which instead of moving toward a destination by taking a step forward, the earth turns toward the traverser rapidly, no matter how far the destination be."  It may be stated that Prophet Suleiman (a.s.) loved horses so much, he forgot to pray Asr-prayer because he played with them and he took an oath that he will never play with them anymore and that’s why Allah replaced the horses with an army of Jinn.  [Abu Dawud]  Only Sulaiman (a.s.) is given dominion over the Jinn. It is also known from the Quran that the Jinn used to build Castles for Solomon, those who would dive into the depths of oceans and bring jewels and pearls from the depths below.  In preparation for the arrival of Bilqis, Prophet Sulaiman (a.s.) had ordered a palace of glass to be built. Under the glass floors, there was a pool of water with various kinds of fish swimming in it. When Bilqis arrived, he took her to the palace. She was told to enter the palace.  When she saw it she thought there was a pool of water and therefore she bared her legs.  Such were the handiworks of Jinn.  We have also mentioned before how they used to eavesdrop and steal the messages from lower heaven.  Another of their abilities is possession of animate and inanimate objects and controlling the thoughts and visions of a human. Unless it is psychological, hallucination, bad dreams are nothing but the work of Jinn.

Allah (swt)  has given the jinn the ability to appear in the form of humans and that is known from real events:  As we know, when the Quraish debated on the best means to silence the Prophet (sal Allahu Alayhe wasallam) forever, they were interrupted by an old man. He introduced himself as a well-wisher from the tribe of Najd, was curious to hear their talk and hoped for their success on reaching a sound decision. This old man was Iblis himself, and with his smooth talking, he was readily admitted into the meeting! In this way he, too, was present when the Quraish plotted the murder of Muhammad (sal Allahu alayhe wasallam). (Ibn Hisham)  Alhumdulillah, Allah (swt) warned the Prophet (sal Allahu alayhe wasallam) of their plans and temporarily blinded the assassins who surrounded his house, as he left Makkah and made his way to Madinah.

Also, the Shaytaan came to Quraysh in the form of man called Suraqah ibn Maalik ibn Ja‘sham and promised them help and victory when they wanted to go out for the battle to Badr. Allah (swt) says: And when Satan made their deeds seem fair to them and said: No-one of mankind can conquer you this day, for I am your protector. But when the armies came in sight of one another, he took flight, saying: Lo! I am guiltless of you. Lo! I see that which ye see not. Lo! I fear Allah. And Allah is severe in punishment. [al-Anfaal 8:48].

Further, according to a hadith: Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah's Apostle deputed me to keep Sadaqat (al-Fitr) of Ramadan. A comer came and started taking handfuls of the foodstuff (of the Sadaqa) (stealthily). I took hold of him and said, "By Allah, I will take you to Allah's Apostle ." He said, "I am needy and have many dependents, and I am in great need." I released him, and in the morning Allah's Apostle asked me, "What did your prisoner do yesterday?" I said, "O Allah's Apostle! The person complained of being needy and of having many dependents, so, I pitied him and let him go." Allah's Apostle said, "Indeed, he told you a lie and he will be coming again." I believed that he would show up again as Allah's Apostle had told me that he would return. So, I waited for him watchfully. When he (showed up and) started stealing handfuls of foodstuff, I caught hold of him again and said, "I will definitely take you to Allah's Apostle. He said, "Leave me, for I am very needy and have many dependents. I promise I will not come back again." I pitied him and let him go. In the morning Allah's Apostle asked me, "What did your prisoner do." I replied, "O Allah's Apostle! He complained of his great need and of too many dependents, so I took pity on him and set him free." Allah's Apostle said, "Verily, he told you a lie and he will return." I waited for him attentively for the third time, and when he (came and) started stealing handfuls of the foodstuff, I caught hold of him and said, "I will surely take you to Allah's Apostle as it is the third time you promise not to return, yet you break your promise and come." He said, "(Forgive me and) I will teach you some words with which Allah will benefit you." I asked, "What are they?" He replied, "Whenever you go to bed, recite "Ayat-al-Kursi"-- 'Allahu la ilaha illa huwa-l-Haiy-ul Qaiyum' till you finish the whole verse. (If you do so), Allah will appoint a guard for you who will stay with you and no satan will come near you till morning. " So, I released him. In the morning, Allah's Apostle asked, "What did your prisoner do yesterday?" I replied, "He claimed that he would teach me some words by which Allah will benefit me, so I let him go." Allah's Apostle asked, "What are they?" I replied, "He said to me, 'Whenever you go to bed, recite Ayat-al-Kursi from the beginning to the end ---- Allahu la ilaha illa huwa-lHaiy-ul-Qaiyum----.' He further said to me, '(If you do so), Allah will appoint a guard for you who will stay with you, and no satan will come near you till morning.' (Abu Huraira or another sub-narrator) added that they (the companions) were very keen to do good deeds. The Prophet said, "He really spoke the truth, although he is an absolute liar. Do you know whom you were talking to, these three nights, O Abu Huraira?" Abu Huraira said, "No." He said, "It was Satan." (Bukhari)   Since that was in the month of Ramadan, it becomes clear that not all devils are chained but only those who are the most rebellious ones such as Maarids. 

Ibn 'Umar reported: "We were sitting with the Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) and a man came in.  He was the ugliest, dirtiest, and one who had the most foul odour coming from him.  He was impolite,  and started walking through the people until he sat before the Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam).  He asked the Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam): "Who created you?" He (s) replied: "Allah." He asked him again: "Who created the heaven?" He (s) replied: "Allah." "Who created the earth?" He (s) said: "Allah." He asked again: "Who created Allah?" The Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) said: "Subhana Allah," and he held his forehead and lowered his head. The man stood up and left.  The Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) raised his head and said: "Bring me the man." We went to fetch him but he had disappeared, as if he had never existed. The Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) said: "That was Iblis. He came to cast doubts in your hearts about your religion." (al-Baihaqi's Dala'il an-Nabuwwah)

Jinn can appear as a black slave:

'Ali Ibn Abi Taalib reported: I swear by Allah that  'Ammar Ibn Yasir fought against both humans and jinn during the life of the Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam).  People said: We know how he fought against humans, so how did he fight against jinn?  Ali said: We were with the Prophet on a journey and he told 'Ammar to go and get some water.  So 'Ammar went to get the water, but a devil, in the form of a black slave, appeared and prevented him from getting the water. 'Ammar wrestled with him and brought him to the ground. Satan said: Let me go and I will let you get the water.  'Ammar let him go but Satan prevented him from reaching the water.  This happened three times, and the fourth time, Satan allowed 'Ammar to get to the water. The Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) then told us: Satan has assumed the form of a black slave and prevented him from getting water, but Allah helped Ammar defeat him.  Ali ®  said: When 'Ammar came back we met him, saying: Well done 'Ammar, the Prophet told us what happened to you.  Then 'Ammar said: I swear by Allah if I had known that he was a devil I would have killed him - I would have throttled him were it not for his bad smell.  [al-Bayhaqi in Dala'il an-Nabuwwah; al-Tabarani in Majma al-Zawa'id; ibn Sa'd in his Tabaqaat, and others)

Continued in Part 6.

NASIR

Monday, October 23, 2017

THE JINN, A SHORT ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE PART 4.


THE JINN -Part 4 Continued:

Many Islamic authorities have mentioned in their books an interesting fact which is also mentioned by Imam Suyuti in Khasais al-Kubra on the strength of the narration of Umar ® which is summarized here as follows:   Once when the Holy Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) was residing in Makkah a very old man came to visit the Holy Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam).  This old man spoke in the language of Jinn so Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) asked him which tribe of Jinn did he belong to.  He replied that he was the grandson of Iblis (Satan).  When asked about his antecedents he replied that he was Hamm the son of Heem who was the son of Lakhis who was the son of Iblis.  When the Holy Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) inquired about his age the old man replied that as a kid he had seen Qabeel (Cain) murdering his brother Habeel (Abel) both of whom were the sons of Adam (a.s.).  During Ibrahim (a.s.) time he embraced his faith and was also a witness when the prophet was thrown into the fire which he tried to extinguish.  Then he embraced the faith of Moosa (a.s.) who taught him the Torah.  Then he embraced the faith of Isa (a.s.) who taught him about the Bible.  The old man had a very important message to deliver to the Holy Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) who said, “Give me the message”. He said “Jesus (pbuh) said to me that “after my demise, Holy Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) will come as the last Messenger of God to this world, you will be alive at that time and you will get a chance to meet him (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam). When you meet holy Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam), convey my salutations to him.” On hearing this from Hamm the Holy Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) felt very happy and with tears in his eyes thanked Almighty Allah.  He (sal Allahu Alayhi wasallam) said: “Peace be upon you and my brother Jesus .” Then holy Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) asked Hamm “do you want anything from me?” Hamm said,  “O Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) I want to embrace Islam at your hand, please teach me some chapters of holy Quran.” The Holy Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) taught him ten chapters of holy Quran.” The Surahs included Surah Waqiya, Surah Naba, Surah Takweer, Surah Kafiroon, Surah Falaq and Surah Naas.  After narrating this whole scenario, Umar-e-Farooq ® said: ”after that day, we never saw him again.”

A frequent activity associated with the Jinn is foretelling the future.  It was a common feature before the advent of Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) for people to seek the help of soothsayers and fortune-tellers who in turn would turn to the Jinn for help.  According to a hadith:  Narrated A’isha (ra), I heard Allah's Apostle saying,"The angels descend from the clouds and mention this or that decreed in the Heaven. The devils listen stealthily to such matter, come down to inspire the soothsayers with it, and the latter would add to it one-hundred lies of his own." [Sahih Al-Bukhari, Volume 4, Hadith Number 432].  The Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) himself described how the jinn tried to steal the messages in the heaven. Abu-Huraira reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) informed him, “When Allah decrees a matter in heaven, the angels move their wings in submission to His word which is like a chain on a smooth stone. When their hearts are delivered from fear they say, ‘What did your Lord say?’ and receive the reply, ‘That which He said is the truth and He is the Most High and the Most Great.’ Then those who listen by stealth hear it (i.e., the jinn), and they are like this, some above others (and Sufyan a narrator, illustrated this point by turning his hand over and separating the fingers). Then one who hears the word passes it on to the one below him, and so forth until one of them passes it to the tongue of a soothsayer or diviner. Often a flame catches him before he is able to pass it on. He then mixes with it one hundred lies. People then ask, ‘Isn’t it true that he did not make such a statement on a specific date,’ and he is believed because of that one word which was heard from the heavens.” (Recorded by al-Bukhari in his Sahih)

The sins of omission and commission and the punishments and rewards are applicable to both in the next life since Jinn too, like humans, have a free will whether to obey or disobey.  According to Surah Jinn, (72:11): And among us there are righteous folk and among us there are far from that. We are sects having different rules. Regarding the righteous and believing Jinn: And when we heard the guidance, we believed therein, and whoso believeth in his Lord, he feareth neither loss nor oppression (Surah Jinn, 72:13).  And there are among us some who have surrendered (to Allah) and there are among us some who are unjust. And whoso hath surrendered to Allah, such have taken the right path purposefully (Surah Jinn 72:14).
The Jinn, as any other living creature, will also die. This is mentioned in the Qur’an:  "Allah will say, ‘Enter you in the company of nations who passed away before you, of men and Jinn, into the Fire." (Qur’an 7:38).  Only Iblis has been granted respite as already stated.  In Surah al-Saffat, verse 158 it is stated: And they have invented a blood-relationship between Him and the Jinn: but the Jinn know (quite well) that they have indeed to appear (before his Judgment- Seat)!  So it is stated in Surah Anam, 128:  One day will He gather them all together, (and say): "O ye assembly of Jinns! Much (toll) did ye take of men." Their friends amongst men will say: "Our Lord! we made profit from each other: but (alas!) we reached our term - which thou didst appoint for us." He will say: "The Fire be your dwelling-place: you will dwell therein forever, except as Allah willeth." for thy Lord is full of wisdom and knowledge.  In Surah Al-Araf v.179 it is stated:  Many are the Jinns and men we have made for Hell: They have hearts wherewith they understand not, eyes wherewith they see not, and ears wherewith they hear not. They are like cattle,- nay more misguided: for they are heedless (of warning).   Allah the Almighty stated in Surah al-An’aam v.130. "O ye assembly of Jinns and men! came there not unto you apostles from amongst you, setting forth unto you My signs, and warning you of the meeting of this Day of yours?" They will say: "We bear witness against ourselves." It was the life of this world that deceived them. So against themselves will they bear witness that they rejected Faith.  Allah says in Surah Hud, verse 119:  Except those on whom thy Lord hath bestowed His Mercy: and for this did He create them: and the Word of thy Lord shall be fulfilled: "I will fill Hell with jinns and men altogether."

According to the author of Rashahat ‘Ain al-Hayat (Beads of Dew from the Source of Life) Mawlana Jami said: “The truth of the matter is that the father of the jinn is other than Satan, although Satan does belong to the species of the jinn. The father of the jinn is a hermaphrodite [khuntha]…There is no benefit in spending time with them, and their company is positively harmful. Since they are created from fire and air, their principal attributes are pride and rebelliousness. Those who frequent them are thereby infected with arrogance and conceit…Warfare amongst them is not rare, since their essential attributes are boastfulness, asserting superiority over one another, arrogance and overbearing tyranny…On the Day of resurrection, those of them who deserve punishment are thrown into the cold hell, since they are not affected by fire.”

The believing and righteous Jinn, would be in Paradise as explicitly stated in Surah Rahman: “(Maidens) whom no man or Jinn before them has deflowered” (55:74). These “Maidens” are the Hoor al-Ayn whose abode is only Paradise.  Another popularly held belief held by some scholars such as Imam Malik, Imam Shafi’I, Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal and Abu Yusuf is that the Jinn will be in the outskirts of paradise, where humans can see them (but they cannot see the humans).  According to Imam Abu Hanifa their reward is to be saved from the Hellfire.  Ibn Katheer points out that a better proof of the Jinn entering the Paradise is Allah’s statement in Surah Rahman:  Whoever fears the judgment of his Lord there will be two gardens.  So which of your Lord’s favours will you both deny?”  (55:46-47).  As indicated before, here “Both” refers to mankind as well the Jinn.  Allah has blessed Jinn and human by rewardng the righteous among them an admission to Paradise.                                                                  
Continued in Part 5.

NASIR

THE JINN, A SHORT ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE PART 3



THE JINN - Part 3 continued:

It is stated in Hughes' Dictionary of Islam, “among the evil Jinn are distinguished the five sons of their chief Iblis; namely, Tir, who brings about calamities, losses, and injuries; al-A'war, who encourages debauchery; Sut, who suggests lies; Dasimn who causes hatred between man and wife; and Zalambur, who presides over places of traffic.” The term "Shaitan" is also used for those disbelieving human beings who have the evil nature of Shaitan and who  are active in spreading Fitna and corruption on earth and fighting righteousness. They disbelieve in the clear tokens and fling the scripture behind their back when Allah’s Messengers come to them confirming what they possess.   According to Surah Baqara, verses 102-103: They followed what the Shayatin (devils) gave out (falsely of the magic) in the lifetime of Sulaiman (Solomon). Sulaiman did not disbelieve, but the Shayatin (devils) disbelieved, teaching men magic and such things that came down at Babylon to the two angels, Harut and Marut, but neither of these two (angels) taught anyone (such things) till they had said, “We are only for trial, so disbelieve not (by learning this magic from us).” And from these (angels) people learn that by which they cause separation between man and his wife, but they could not thus harm anyone except by Allah’s Leave. And they learn that which harms them and profits them not. And indeed they knew that the buyers of it (magic) would have no share in the Hereafter. And how bad indeed was that for which they sold their ownselves, if they but knew.  And if they had believed, and guarded themselves from evil and kept their duty to Allah, far better would have been the reward from their Lord, if they but knew!

The Holy Quran informs us that some Jinn are on the righteous path having submitted themselves to Allah, while some follow many divergent paths and are unjust having gone astray and they are the Jinn who are the fuel for Hell-Fire. The jinn are of different ranks in terms of piety or impiety.  Some are heedless; others are disbelievers. They speak of themselves in the Qur'an: “There are among us some that are righteous, and some the contrary; we are groups having different ways (i.e. religious sects)” [72:11].  The devils among the Jinn have chosen disbelief, idolatry and disobedience of Allah.  They are the followers of their Chief, Satan or Iblis who rebelled against Allah by not obeying His command to prostrate before Adam.  Hafiz Ibn Hajr has alluded in his Fath al-Bari that disbelieving Jinn are shaitans meaning that when the word shaitan is used it means an evil disbelieving jinn. [Fath al-Bari [6:344] and [8:675].    Most the scholars such as ar-Razi and Alusi accept that unbelieving Jinn are called satans.  They work mischief and corruption on earth and lure and seduce humans to evil.  In a hadith, transmitted in Imam Muslim’s Sahih from the Hadith narrated by Jabir Ibn ‘Abdullah as said by the Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam): “Iblis places his throne upon water; he then sends detachments (for creating dissension); the nearer to him in rank are those who are most notorious in creating dissension. One of them comes and says: “I did so and so.” And he says: “You have done nothing.” Then one amongst them comes and says: “I did not spare so and so until I sowed the seed of discord between a husband and a wife.” Satan goes near him and says: “You have done well.” Al-A’mash said: “He then embraces him.”

On the question whether the Jinn had the messengers sent from amongst themselves or had no messengers, or had human messengers sent by Allah, we know that the Holy Quran is addressed to both humans and Jinn and both Quran and Sunnah indicate that jinn exist, and that there is a purpose for their existence in this life, which is to worship Allah Alone with no partner or associate. Allah Almighty says: “And I (Allah) created not the Jinn and humans, except they should worship Me (Alone).” (Adh-Dhariyat: 56).  It is also mentioned in the Holy Quran in Surah al-An’am: "O ye assembly of jinn and humankind! Came there not unto you messengers of your own who recounted unto you My signs and warned you of the meeting of this day of yours?" (6:130), meaning by that messengers from mankind and messengers from the jinn. Ibn Hazm said: A prophet from mankind was never sent to the jinn before our Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam), and before him prophets would be sent to their people. He said: we know with certainty that they would warn one another.  So according to al-Shibli al-Hanafi the view that prophets from themselves came to them is sound though the majority of the 'ulama, successors and predecessors, believed that there was never a messenger from the jinn and whenever Allah sent a Prophet to mankind, the Jinn of that time could also receive his message.  Apparently,  this verse (6:130) shows that there were messengers from the jinn as well, but the tafseer (commentary) of this verse is that a messenger will be sent to both man and jinn. It does not mean that each one of them will have their own messenger. The word منكم (from you) is addressed collectively to the jinn and man. (Bayan-ul-Qur'an, Vol 3, Pg 129)  Ibn Kathir too says in his Tafsir that messengers are among mankind only and not vice versa as stated by ibn Jurayj, Mujahid and other imams from the Salaf and later generations  We need to remember that in the final phase the Holy Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) is the final Prophet sent not only to Man but also Jinn.  It is mentioned in Surah al-Ahqaf:  And when We inclined toward thee (Muhammad) certain of the jinn, who wished to hear the Qur'an and, when they were in its presence, said: Give ear! and, when it was finished, turned back to their people, warning.  They said: O our people! Lo! we have heard a scripture which hath been revealed after Moses, confirming that which was before it, guiding unto the truth and a right road.  O our people! respond to Allah's summoner and believe in Him. He will forgive you some of your sins and guard you from a painful doom. And whoso respondeth not to Allah's summoner he can nowise escape in the earth, and he hath no protecting friends instead of Him. Such are in error manifest. (46:29 to 32)
The Holy Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) was commanded to tell the Mankind about the World of Jinn, and that he was sent to both Man and Jinn as a Guide.  We have already quoted verses 29 to 32 from Surah al-Ahqaf where Allah has mentioned that a group of Jinn heard the Quran and believed in it and they also warned their folks about heeding it.  The first 19 verses of chapter 72 (The Jinn) of holy Quran mentions about Jinn’s coming to holy Prophet (pbuh), for embracing of Islam and he (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) used to teach Islam to them, in their own respective languages. Therefore, Jinn are also included in the ummah of Holy Prophet (sa Allahu alayhi wasallam).  It is reported by many classical Islamic authorities in their books that 12,000 Jinn came from Mousel in Iraq, and from Harran near Turkey and Naseebeen in Yemen.”  Additionally, there are many prophetic traditions that also lend assurance to this fact.  From the Companions such as Abu Hurairah and Ibn Masood (excluding Ibn Abbas ® who at that time had no knowledge of the incident) we come to know that the Jinn used to visit Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) who used to talk to them.  The Holy Prophet (sal Allahu Alayhi wasallam) also read out the Surah ar-Rahman to the Jinn.  In that Surah, there is a refrain of the verse “And which of your Lord’s favour would you deny”.  As Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) would read the said refrain, the Jinn would reply: ‘There is none of your signs that we deny, all praise is due to You.” 
The story of how the first Jinn of this ummah became Muslims was narrated by 'Abd-Allaah ibn 'Abbas, who said: "The Prophet went out with a group of his Companions heading for the marketplace of 'Ukaaz. This was when the shayaateen were prevented from getting any news from heaven, and shooting stars had been sent against them. The shayaateen went back to their people, who said, 'What is the matter with you?' They said, 'We cannot get news from heaven, and shooting stars were sent against us.' Their people said, 'Nothing is stopping you from hearing news from heaven except some new event that must have happened. Go and look in the east and the west of the earth, and see if you can find out what it is that is stopping you from hearing news from heaven.' Those who went out in the direction of Tihaamah came upon the Prophet in Nakhlah, when he was on his way to 'Ukaaz, and found him leading his Companions in Fajr prayer. When they heard the prayers, they listened to it and said, 'By Allah, this is what is stopping us from hearing news from heaven.' When they went back to their people, they said, 'O our people, we have heard a wonderful Recital. It guides to the Right Path, and we have believed therein, and we shall never join (in worship) anything with our Lord.  It was after this that the revelation came that some of the group of Jinn did listen to the Quran during his (s) Fajr prayers there.  The Prophet (salAllahu alayhi wasalam) went to the companions and recited Surah ar Rahman but they were all quiet. He told them that he went to the jinn and recited it to them and they were responsive. And when he would recite the verses 'And which of the favours of the Lord will you deny' the jinn would respond 'There is nothing among your bounties that we can deny, all praise belongs to Allah'. [Tirmidhi, Ibn al Mundhir, Al Adhama & Hakim 2/474]
Imam Baihaqi mentions in "Dalail-e-Nubuwwat" on the authority of Hadhrat Abdullah ibn Masood ® that the Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) once, said to his companions in Makkah: "Whosoever from amongst you desires to see the Jinn, he should come to me tonight." Hadhrat Abdullah ibn Masood stated that no one except me came that night. The Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) took me with him to a high hill in Makkah. He drew a circle with his foot for me and advised me to keep sitting within that circle. Seating Hadhrat Abdullah ibn Masood within that circle, he advanced ahead and then stood at a place. There, he started recitation of the Holy Quran. All of a sudden a big group of Jinn encircled the Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) and that group stood as a wall between me and the Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) and I heard the Jinn saying: "Who gives evidence that you are the Prophet." There was a tree nearby. The Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) observed: "Will you accept my claim if this tree gives the evidence?" The Jinn said: "Yes, we shall accept it." On that, the Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) beckoned the tree. The tree came nearby and gave the evidence accordingly and all the Jinn embraced Islam.

Continued in 4.


NASIR

Sunday, October 22, 2017

THE JINN - A SHORT ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE. PART 2


Part 2 continued:

The first ones to dwell on earth were the jinn. Then some of the jinn disbelieved.  They caused mischief therein, shedding blood and killing one another.  The angels used to come down to earth to fight them, and there was bloodshed and corruption on earth.  Al-Hakim has reported a narration by Ibn Abbas ® that "Two thousand years before (mankind) was created, there were Jinn on (the Earth), and they caused corruption on it and shed blood. Then Allah sent against them a troop of Angels who beat them and cast them away to islands in the seas. So, when Allah said: ‘I am placing (mankind) generations after generations on Earth,’ They (the Angels) said, ‘Will You place therein one who will cause corruption and shed blood’ (Al Baqarah, 2:30), i.e.  Just as those Jinn did!  Then Allah said: ‘I know that which you do not know.’"  
Before we delve further into the subject, it is relevant to go back to the ancestor of the Jinn – Iblis or Satan.  According to some sources Jinn are children of Jaan and those who do evil are the shaitans and are offsprings of Iblis. Al-Jaan is sometimes used as a name for Iblis, as in Quranic Surah 15:27: And the Jann [the father of the Jinn i.e. Iblis] we had created before [i.e. before the creation of Adam] of the fire of the Samum [i.e. smokeless fire]." Jann also signifies "a serpent," as in other passages of the Qur'an, and is used in the same book as synonymous with Jinn.   Hasan Basri and Tabari are of the opinion that Iblis is the ancestor of the Jinn, supported as they are by Muqatil, Qatada and Ata. 
Iblis was not an angel but from the Jinn since there is not even a single explicit statement in the Quran which categorically states that Iblis was an angel.  The idea of Iblis being an Angel is only through implications based on some Quranic verses where Angels are told to prostrate:  And behold, We said to the angels: "Bow down to Adam" and they bowed down. Not so Iblis: he refused and was haughty: He was of those who reject Faith (2:34).  When We said to the angels, "Prostrate yourselves to Adam", they prostrated themselves, but not Iblis: he refused (20:116).  Behold! We said to the angels: "Bow down unto Adam": They bowed down except Iblis: He said, "Shall I bow down to one whom Thou didst create from clay?" (17:61). Such other statements are found in the Quran in: 15:28,  38:71 and 7:11.  We shall not discuss the Arabic grammer that Islamic scholars have pointed out to justify the case where the majority also includes the minority.  To put it in simple English, suffice it to say that when we address a group, “hey guys come on,” the group may comprise both men and women or a single one in a major group of either.  This sentence cannot be demonstrated to prove that the women in the group are actually men or vice versa.  On the other hand, we have the explicit Quranic verses to show that Iblis was an entity different from Angel and humans.  According to the Surah Al-Hijr of Holy Quran, verse 26: We created man from sounding clay, from mud moulded into shape;  27. And the Jinn race, We had created before, from the fire of a scorching wind. In Sura al-Araf (v.12) it is stated: (Allah) said: "What prevented thee from bowing down when I commanded thee?" He said: "I am better than he: Thou didst create me from fire, and him from clay."  In Surah ar-Rahman, v.15 it is stated: And He created Jinns from fire free of smoke.  Then in Surah Kahf (18:50):  Behold! We said to the angels, "Bow down to Adam": They bowed down except Iblis. He was one of the Jinn, and he broke the Command of his Lord. So without doubt, Satan was a Jinn who  was created from fire, and with his free will he disobeyed Allah.  Angels don’t have free will.  They obeyed the command of Allah and bowed down.  According to Ibn Kathir,  “When Allah Most Exalted commanded angels to prostrate before Adam, Satan was also included in this command. For, although he was not of their kind, he resembled them and performed their deeds. Therefore, Satan was also included in this command which was directed to angels. And he was condemned because he did not fulfill the command.”  In short, the Jewish concept of “Fallen Angel” cannot be accepted because it contradicts the Holy Quran!
A question might arise as to why Iblis, a Jinn,  should be included among the Angels whom Allah commanded to prostrate before Adam.  Prior to his becoming Iblis, he was known as Azazeel for his extraordinary piety and was elevated to the rank of angels as their equal though he was from the Jinn kind.   According to Hajjah Amina Adil (Lore of Light), Azazeel was the Peacock among the Angels.  He caused the Heavens to wonder, when there was not a space the width of a hand on the Earth where he did not make prostration for his Lord.  For ages, none excelled him, none could match him, not even the angels.  Outwardly, he was perfect.  His physical existence surrendered to the Will of his Lord perfectly until he was eventually Raised to the Heavens to be among Angels, and to lead them in prayer.  He was dressed in greatness, he worshiped his Lord more than any other creation.  But yet, he failed to serve Him inwardly.  According to  Abu Jafar al-Tabari in his Tafsir, Iblis’s wickedness stemmed from the fact that he was a Jinn who possessed great knowledge, worshipped Allah zealously and had been entrusted with the rule of lower heavens and the earth and was even given the post of the Keeper of Paradise! In fact, God had sent Iblis to gather some sweet and salty skin (Adeem – hence the name Adam) from the earth and thereafter created Adam from it.  It is for this reason that Iblis asked: Shall I fall prostrate before that which Thou hast created out of clay?” (Quran 17:61) That is, the clay brought by myself!  The Tafsir further mentions that God created Adam with a body of clay for forty years to the extent of a Friday.  When the Angels passed by him they were frightened by what they saw.  Iblis was the most frightened. He would kick him, and entering his body from the mouth he would leave by his posterior.  He would tell the Angels not to be afraid,  that whereas the Lord is solid, this one is hollow; and that: “When I am given the authority over him, I shall ruin him.” 

Iblis’ transgression cost him much.  (Allah) said: "Get thee down from this: it is not for thee to be arrogant here: get out, for thou art of the meanest (of creatures)." He was expelled from the blissful place and the company of angels.  Hell became his destiny yet he asked for respite: He said: "Give me respite till the day they are raised up."  (Allah) said: "Be thou among those who have respite."  He said: "Because thou hast thrown me out of the way, lo! I will lie in wait for them on thy straight way: "Then will I assault them from before them and behind them, from their right and their left: Nor wilt thou find, in most of them, gratitude (for thy mercies)." (Allah) said: "Get out from this, disgraced and expelled. If any of them follow thee,- Hell will I fill with you all. (Surah Araf 7:14-18)   So respite was granted to the accursed and rejected Iblis till the Day of the time appointed by Allah (swt) when all shall be raised from the dead – the details of which are in Surah al-Hijr (15:34-38).  The knowledge of “Appointed Time” is known only to Allah (swt)!  Since Iblis was sentenced to punishment because of Man, we learn from Surah Hijr: (Iblis) said: "O my Lord! because Thou hast put me in the wrong, I will make (wrong) fair-seeming to them on the earth, and I will put them all in the wrong, "Except Thy servants among them, sincere and purified (by Thy Grace)." (Allah) said: "This (way of My sincere servants) is indeed a way that leads straight to Me. "For over My servants no authority shalt thou have, except such as put themselves in the wrong and follow thee." And verily, Hell is the promised abode for them all! (15:39-43).  Therefore Satan is an avowed enemy of Man and he and his agents would do all to turn Man away from the righteous path and thus make them also suffer the everlasting punishment of hellfire.  On this the Holy Quran is very explicit where Iblis seeks respite from Allah till the Day of Judgment in order to bring all the descendants of Adam under his sway, except a few, and tells Allah: “By Your Power I will seduce all of them except Your purified servants (Surah Saad – 38:82-83).   Humankind have a free will and so Iblis has no authority over them except those who do wrong and follow Iblis.

Allah (swt) has clearly stated that Iblis is the enemy of mankind and he began to lead them astray beginning with Adam in the Paradise itself: In Surah Ta-Ha it is mentioned:  116. And when We said unto the angels: Fall prostrate before Adam, they fell prostrate (all) save Iblis; he refused. 117. Therefor we said: O Adam! This is an enemy unto thee and unto thy wife, so let him not drive you both out of the Garden so that thou come to toil. 118. It is (vouchsafed) unto thee that thou hungerest not therein nor art naked, 119. And that thou thirstest not therein nor art exposed to the sun's heat. 120. But the devil whispered to him, saying: O Adam! Shall I show thee the tree of immortality and power that wasteth not away ? 121. Then they twain ate thereof, so that their shame became apparent unto them, and they began to hide by heaping on themselves some of the leaves of the Garden. And Adam disobeyed his Lord, so went astray.

Continued in 3.

NASIR