Praise be to Allah, Lord of all the worlds, and blessings and peace of Allah upon His Prophet and Messenger Muhammad (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam), his Family and all his Companions.
Making a shroud out of the clothes worn by the Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam):
When Alī’s mother, Fātimah bint Asad died, her funeral rites were meticulously observed. After the bath, when it was time to dress her up in a shirt, the Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) handed his own shirt to the women and commanded them to dress her up in that shirt and then wrap the coffin round it.
To drape her dead body in his shirt was most presumably intended to shower divine blessings on her.
[Tabarānī narrated it in al-Mu‘jam-ul-kabīr (24:351-2#871) and al-Mu‘jam-ul-awsat (1:152-3#191); Ibn ‘Abd-ul-Barr, al-Istī‘āb fī ma‘rifat-il-ashāb (4:382); Abū Nu‘aym, Hilyat-ul-awliyā’ wa tabaqāt-ul-asfiyā’ (3:121); Ibn-ul-Jawzī, al-‘Ilal-ul-mutanāhiyyah (1:268-9#433), Sifat-us-safwah (2:38); Ibn-ul-Athīr, Asad-ul-ghābah (7:213); Samhūdī, Wafā’-ul-wafā (3:897-8); and Ibn Hajar ‘Asqalānī in al-Isābah fī tamyīz-is-sahābah (4:380)].
As mentioned in Kanzul Ummal, vol.6, page 7, when Fatima binte Asad ® left for her heavenly abode, the Holy Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) shrouded her in his own shirt and laid her in the grave. And when he was asked to explain this action of his he said, "I wanted that the fire (of hell) should not touch her and that her grave becomes spacious for her."
2. When the Prophet’s daughter, Zaynab or Umm Kalthūm died, he blessed her with his own trouser-sash to wrap the coffin.
[Bukhārī narrated it in his as-Sahīh, b. of janā’iz (funerals) ch.8, 17 (1:422-3,425#1195,1204); Muslim, as-Sahīh, b. of janā’iz, ch.12 (2:648#939); Abū Dāwūd, Sunan, b. of janā’iz, (3:200#3157); Nasā’ī, Sunan, b. of janā’iz (4:28-33); Tirmidhī, al-Jāmi‘-us-sahīh, b. of janā’iz, ch.15 (3:315#990); Ibn Mājah, Sunan, b. of janā’iz, ch.8 (1:468-9#1458); Mālik bin Anas, al-Muwattā, b. of janā’iz, ch.1 (1:222#2); Ahmad bin Hambal, Musnad (5:84, 6:407); Humaydī, Musnad (1:175-6#360); Ibn Hibbān, as-Sahīh (7:302,304#3032-3); Tabarānī, al-Mu‘jam-ul-kabīr (25:45-50#86,88-95,97-99)].
Sahl bin Sa‘d relates that he was buried in that sheet of cloth.
3. Jābir bin ‘Abdullāh narrates:
The Holy Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) went over to ‘Abdullāh bin Ubayy after he had been buried. He had his dead body taken out, covered his mouth with his saliva and draped him in his own shirt.
Bukhārī transmitted in his as-Sahīh, b. of janā’iz (funeral prayers) ch.22,76 (1:427#1211); and Ahmad bin Hanbal in his Musnad (3:371).
The same tradition has also been reported in a modified form:
The Holy Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) reached ‘Abdullāh bin Ubayy when he had been placed inside the grave. He commanded him to be taken out (and when he was taken out) he (the Prophet) placed him over his knees, rubbed him with his own saliva, breathed into him and draped him in his own shirt.
[Bukhārī related it in as-Sahīh, b. of libās (dress) ch.7 (5:2184#5459), b. of janā’iz (funeral prayers) ch.22 (1:427#1210); Muslim, as-Sahīh, b. of sifāt-ul-munāfiqīn wa ahkāmuhum (pertaining to the characteristics of the hypocrites and the command concerning them) 4:2140 (#2773); Nasā’ī, Sunan, b. of janā’iz (4:37-8); Ahmad bin Hanbal, Musnad (3:381); Bayhaqī, as-Sunan-ul-kubrā (3:402); and Wāqidī in Kitāb-ul-maghāzī (2:1057).]
4. ‘Abdullāh bin ‘Umar narrates:
When ‘Abdullāh bin Ubayy died, his son went over to the Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) and said to him: ‘O Messenger of Allah! I implore you to bless him with your shirt to make out of it a coffin for him, and you offer prayer on it and also pray for his forgiveness. So he gave him his shirt.
[Bukhārī narrated it in his as-Sahīh, b. of libās (dress) ch.7 (5:2184#5460), b. of janā’iz (funerals) ch.22 (1:427#1210), b. of tafsīr (interpretation of the Qur’ān) ch.160,161 4:1715,1716 (#4393,4395); Muslim, as-Sahīh, b. of sifāt-ul-munāfiqīn wa ahkāmuhum (the signs of hypocrites and their commands) 4:2141 (#2774); Nasā’ī, Sunan, b. of janā’iz (funerals) 4:36, and Tafsir (1:551-2#244); Tirmidhī, al-Jāmi‘-us-sahīh, b. of tafsīr, ch.10 (5:279-80#3098); Ahmad bin Hambal, Musnad (2:18); Ibn Hibbān, as-Sahīh (7:447#3175); Ibn ‘Abd-ul-Barr, as-Istī‘āb fī ma‘rifat-il-ashāb (2:336); Bayhaqī, as-Sunan-ul-kubrā (3:402; 8:199), and Dalā’il-un-nubuwwah (5:287); Ibn Kathīr, al-Bidāyah wan-nihāyah (3:635); and Ibn Hajar ‘Asqalānī in al-Isābah fī tamyīz-is-sahābah (2:336)].
5. When ‘Abdullāh bin Sa‘d bin Sufyān was martyred in the battle of Tabūk, the Holy Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) shrouded him in his own shirt.
[Ibn-ul-Athīr, Asad-ul-ghābah (3:262); Ibn Hajar ‘Asqalānī, al-Isābah fī tamyīz-is-sahābah (2:318)].
6. When ‘Abdullāh bin Hārith bin ‘Abd-ul-Muttalib bin Hashim died, the Holy Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi
wasallam) buried him in his own shirt and said: “He is fortunate and he has received blessings from it.”
Ibn ‘Abd-ul-Barr narrated it in al-Istī‘āb fī ma‘rifat-il-ashāb (2:279); Ibn-ul-Athīr, Asad-ul-ghābah (3:207); and Ibn Hajar ‘Asqalānī in al-Isābah fī tamyīz-is-sahābah (2:292).
7. Similarly, a woman presented a shawl to the Holy Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam). When he was dressed in it, someone said to him: O Messenger of Allah! What a beautiful shawl! Please give it to me; and he gave the shawl to him. The audience were displeased by it and started cursing the person who had requested for the shawl: when you knew that the Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) never turns down the request of a petitioner, then why did you ask for this shawl? That person replied: I have taken this sheet of cloth not for wearing but for my coffin to draw blessings from it. The words of the tradition are as follows:
Sahl bin Sa‘d says: A woman brought a burdah, that is, a sheet of cloth for the Holy Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam). Sahl asked the people: do you know what burdah is? People replied: it is a large and open sheet of cloth. Sahl said: burdah is a kind of sheet which has stripes in it. The woman said: O Messenger of Allah! I present (this sheet) to you for wearing. The Holy Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) accepted the shawl because, under the circumstances, he needed it. Then the Holy Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) wore it. One of the Companions had his eyes set on the shawl and he said to the Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam): What a graceful sheet of cloth! Please give it to me. He said: Yes, you take it. When the Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) left, his Companions rebuked him. They said: You haven’t done good (especially) when you saw that the Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) had accepted it and also needed it, and you know that whenever a petition is made to the Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam), he never turns it down. The man replied: when the Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) had worn it, I expected it to bring blessings to me in case I am buried in it.
[Bukhārī narrated it in his as-Sahīh, b. of adab (good manners) ch.39 (5:2245#5689), b. of janā’iz (funeral prayers) ch.28 (1:429#1218), b. of buyū‘ (sales) ch.31 (2:737#1987), b. of libās (dress) ch.17 (5:2189#5473); Ibn Mājah, Sunan, b. of libās, ch.1 (2:1177#3555); Ahmad bin Hanbal, Musnad (5:333-4); and Ibn Sa‘d in at-Tabaqāt-ul-kubrā (1:454)].
8. Cure through the cloak, Jhubba, Robe of Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam):
• Imam Muslim relates that `Abd Allah, the freed slave of Asma' the daughter of Abu Bakr, the maternal uncle of the son of `Ata', said: "Asma' sent me to Abdullah ibn `Umar saying: "The news has reached me that you prohibit the use of three things: the striped robe, saddle cloth made of red silk, and fasting the whole month of Rajab." Abdullah said to me: "So far as what you say about fasting in the month of Rajab, how about one who observes continuous fasting? And so far as what you say about the striped garment, I heard `Umar ibn al-Khattab say that he had heard from Allah's Messenger: "He who wears a silk garment, has no share for him (in the Hereafter)." And I am afraid that stripes were part of it. And so far as the red saddle cloth is concerned, here is Abdullah's saddle cloth [=his] and it is red." I went back to Asma' and informed her, so she said: "Here is the cloak (jubba) of Allah's Messenger," and she brought out to me that cloak made of Persian cloth with a hem of (silk) brocade, and its sleeves bordered with (silk) brocade, and said: "This was Allah's Messenger's cloak with `A'isha until she died, then I got possession of it. The Apostle of Allah used to wear that, and we washed it for the sick so that they could seek cure thereby." Muslim relates in the first chapter of the book of clothing. Nawawi comments in Sharh sahih Muslim (Book 37 Chapter 2 #10): "In this hadith is a proof that it is recommended to seek blessings through the relics of the righteous and their clothes (wa fi hadha al-hadith dalil `ala istihbab al-tabarruk bi aathaar al-salihin wa thiyabihim)."
[Sahih Muslim, Book 24, Hadith #5149; Sunan Al Kubra-Imam Bayhaqi, Volume: 2, Page: 594, Hadith No #4210; Shu'b Al Eman-Imam Bayhaqi, Volume: 8, Page: 207; Sharh us Sunnah-Imam Baghwi, Volume: 12, Page: 33, Hadith No #3104; Al Muntaqa-Imam Suliman bin Half Al Baji, Volume: 7, Page: 222; Sharah At Taqreeb-Imam Zain ud Din Iraqi, Volume:3, Page: 234 ; Mirqat Al Mafateeh-Imam Mulla Ali Qari, Volume: 7, Page: 2770; ►Tohfatul Ahwazi-Allama Mubarakfuri, Volume: 5, Page: 318; Jami' Al Usool-Ibn e Al Atheer, Volume: 10, Page: 688, Hadith No: 8344.]
It was the usual practice of the Companions to preserve relics of Prophet (sal Sallahu Alayhi wasallam) and to draw benefits and blessings out of them. This proves that they offered them to Allah as instruments of mediation when they needed His help and assistance.
Some people assert that there is no benefit (blessings) in items possessed by our Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) i.e. clothes, hair, and nails. Those who doubt narrate ahadith in which our Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) gave a shirt to 'Abdullah ibn Ubayy as tabarurk, which had no effect for his forgiveness.
The answer to this is that an unbeliever or a munafiq (hypocrite) will gain no benefit from our Prophet's (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) Tabarruk. 'Abdullah ibn Ubayy was the leader of the munafiqin so how can he gain blessings from the shirt. Yes, a believer - such as the Companions -did benefit, as mentioned previously. They kept items such as shirts, hair, nails and clothes. Some even asked to be buried with these items.
The second answer to this question is provided by Hafiz Ibn Kathir:
"There is a narration from the Salaf that the shirt which our Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) gave was not for Tabarruk. This was because the munafiq gave a shirt to our Prophet's (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) uncle, Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) and so it was in return only that our Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) repaid him"
[Tafsir Ibn Kathir, under Sura at-Tawba, verse 82]
Tabarruk with the Prophet’s staff:
Abdullāh bin Anīs has reported it from his father:
When I called on the Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) , he said to me as he saw me: “The successful face (the successful man).” He says: I said to him: O Messenger of Allah, I have killed him (Khālid bin Sufyān). He said: You have spoken out the truth. Then the Messenger (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) stood up beside me and went to his house and blessed me with his staff and said: O ‘Abdullāh bin Anīs! Keep it with you. When I came out carrying the staff, the people asked me: what is this (staff)? He replied: this has been given to me by the Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) and he has commanded me to keep it. The people said: won’t you return it to the Messenger (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam)? Ask the Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) about it. ‘Abdullāh bin Anīs says that I called on the Holy Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) and asked him: O Messenger of Allah! why have you given this staff to me? He replied: On the Day of Judgement this will serve as a mark of recognition between us when few people will cooperate with others. ‘Abdullāh bin Anīs tied the staff to his sword and always kept it with himself until he passed away. He had willed about the staff that it should be placed in his coffin, so we buried them together.
[Ahmad bin Hanbal's Musnad (3:496); Ibn Sa‘d, at-Tabaqāt-ul-kubrā (2:50-1); Al Musnad-Imam Ahmad Bin Hambal, Volume: 25, Page: 440, Hadith No#16047; As Sahi-Imam Ibn e Hibban, Volume:16, Page: 114, Hadith No#7160; Sunan Al Kubra-Imam Bayhaqi, Volume: 3, Page: 364/3, Hadith No#6024; Dalail An Nubuwwah-Imam Bayhaqi, Volume: 1, Page: 517, Hadith No#445; Umdatul Qari Sharah Sahi Bukhari-Imam badr ud Din 'Ayni, Volume: 7, Page: 298; Jami' Al Masaneed Was Sunan-Imam Ibn e katheer, Volume: 5, Page: 18, Hadith No #5966; Seerat An Nabwiyah-Imam Ibn e Katheer, Volume: 3, Page: 368; Al bidayah Wan Nihayah-Imam ibn e Katheer, Volume: 4, Page: 160; Majma' Az Zawaid-Imam Haithami, Volume: 6, Page: 203, Hadith No #10344; Khasais Al Kubra-Imam Suyuti, Volume: 1, Page: 390; Seerat Ibn e hishaam-Allama ibn e Hisham,Volume: 2, Page: 260; Tareekh Al Islam-Imam Zahabi, Volume: 2, Page: 199.]
Qadi `Iyad relates in his book al-Shifa’, in the chapter entitled “Esteem for the things and places connected with the Prophet,” that after Jihjah al-Ghifari took the Prophet’s staff from the hands of `Uthman and tried to break it across his knee, infection seized his knee which led to its amputation, and he died before the end of the year.
Anas bin Mālik has reported:
That he had a short stick given to him by the Holy Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam). When he died, it (the stick) was buried with him, between his shirt and the side of his body.
[Ibn Kathīr in al-Bidāyah wan-nihāyah (4:368).]
Continued in Part 4….