Wednesday, July 20, 2011


From Layman’s Desk-14.
Continued – Part 8: Views of the Four Imams:
At this stage, let us briefly look at the views of the  leading Imams of the Four Schools of Thought:
It is a big lie that Imam-e-Azam  Abu Hanifa Numan ibn Thabit (reh) was against Tawassul as we shall see below: 
Firstly, it is to be noted that he nowhere objected to tawassul, but only – as narrated from Abu Yusuf in Kitàb al-Àthàr– to the use of a specific wording in supplication, namely, “by the right You owe to So-and-so” (bi-haqqi fulàni ‘alayk), or “by the joints of power and glory in Your Throne(bima ‘àqidal-‘izzmin‘arshik). [Cf. al-Zabïdï, It hàf (2:285) and Ibn Abï al-‘Izz, Sharhal-‘Aqïda al-Tahàwiyya (1988 9th ed. p. 237).]  The reason for this is that, on the one hand, Allàh owes none any right whatsoever except what He Himself permits. Imàm Abu Hanïfa said: “Let one not swear any oath except by Allàh alone, with a pure affirmation of tawhïd and sincerity.”[Cf. al-Kasànï, Badà’i‘ al-Sanà’i‘ (3:8).].  This is the belief of Sunni muslims too.  It is permissi­ble in the Hanafï School to say “by the sanctity/honor of so-and-so in Your presence” (bi-hurmati/bi-jàhi fulàn). This is stated in the Fatàwà Bazzàziyya (6:351 in the margin of the Fatàwà Hindiyya) and is also the position of Abu al-Layth al-Samarqandï among the major Hanafï Jurists, not to mention that of Imàm Ibn ‘Àbidïn among the later ones.  But it is Allah (swt)'s Will whether he accepts Tawassul or rejects it and gives the person Jaza in Akhira.
Secondly, Imam Abu Hanifa (reh)writes in his famous Qasida-i Maymuna-i Mubaraka also known as Durru Maknun about Prophet (Saleh ala waalih wasalam:  
"You (Muhammad sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) are the one, with whom Adam made Tawassul and even he was your father, he was rescued.  When the Khalil made Dua to you, the fire became cool against your bright Noor the fire was calmed.  Prophet Ayyub (a.s.)made Dua to you, when he was sick all his sickness was deleted, when he made Dua to you!" So is Musa making all the time Tawassul with you on the day of judgement he will search help by you!" (Bayt 9-13) "Make Shafaat for this poor ya Rasulullah Madat! I did came to your door, begging for richness by you!" (Bayt 49)
At the grave of the Holy Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam), Imam Abu hanifa (Rah) himself said Ya Rasool Allah [sal Allahu alayhi wasallam].

Thirdly, (Abu Hanifa An Nafi An Ibn Umar):  The appropriate way is that you turn towards the grave of Prophet (salallaho alaihi wasalam) coming from the qibla while HAVING YOUR BACK TOWARDS QIBLA, FACING DIRECTLY TOWARDS THE QABR AND SAY PEACE BE UPON YOU [Ya Rasool Allah] O PROPHET OF ALLAH AND HIS RAHMAH AND BARAKAH.  [Musnad Imam Abu Hanifa, Bab Ziyarah Qabr an Nabi Sal Aallahu alaihi wasallam]

Fourthly, Mujtahid, Imam ibn al-Humam (d. 861 AH), mentioned from Imam Abu Hanifa in his Fath al-Qadir (Sharh al-Hidaya) the following narration:  

“When Imam Abu Hanifa visited Medina, he stood in front of the honorable grave (of the Prophet) and said:  

"O (YA), most  honourable of the Two Weighty Ones (humankind and jinn)! O (YA), treasure of mankind, shower your generosity upon me and please me with your pleasure. I am aspiring for your generosity, and there is no one for Abu Hanifa in the world but you."
Next, coming to Imam Shafi’i, Imam Ibn Hajar al-Haytami said in his book al-Khayrat al-hisan fi manaqib al-imam Abi Hanifa al-Nu`man, chapter 35:  When Imam al-Shafi`i was in Baghdad, he would visit the grave of Imam Abu Hanifa, give him salam, and then ask Allah for the fulfillment of his need through his means (yatawassal ilallah ta`ala bihi fi qada' hajatihi).

Imam Kawthari mentioned in his Maqalat (p. 412) that the hafiz al-Khatib al-Baghdadi mentions Shafi`i's tawassul through Abu Hanifa in the beginning of his Tarikh Baghdad (1:123) with a good chain.

Allama ibn Abideen Shaami (d. 1253 AH) writes that Imam Shafi'i said: "I seek blessings from Abu Haneefa and go near his grave. When I am need of something I perform two raka'ahs of salah and then I go near his grave and pray to Allah. Thus, my need is fulfilled quickly"  (Raddul Muhtar, vol.1 p.38)
Haytami also said in many places in his book al-Sawa`iq al-muhriqa li ahl al-dalal wa al-zandaqa (cf. p. 180) and al-Khayrat al-hisan (p. 69): "Imam Shafi`i made tawassul through the Family of the Prophet (Ahl al-Bayt) when he said: Al al-nabi dhari`ati wa hum ilayhi wasilati arju bihim u`ta ghadan bi yadi al-yamini sahifati [The Family of the Prophet are my means and my intermediary to him. Through them I hope to be given my record with the right hand tomorrow]. This is found in Diwan al-Shafi`i as edited by `Umar Faruq al-Dabbagh (Beirut: Dar al-arqam, n.d.) p. 50.
As for Imam Malik (reh.), it is universally known that Imam Malik was asked the following question by the Caliph Abu Ja`far al-Mansur: "Shall I face the Qibla with my back towards the grave of the Messenger of Allah when making du`a (after salams)?" He replied:
How could you turn your face away from him when he is the means (wasila) of your and your father Adam's forgiveness to Allah on the Day of Resurrection? Nay, face him and ask for his intercession (istashfi` bihi) so that Allah will grant it to you as He said: "If they had only, when they were wronging themselves, come unto thee and asked Allah's forgiveness, and the Messenger had asked forgiveness for them, they would have found Allah indeed Oft-returning, Most Merciful (4:64)."

It is cited by al-Qadi `Iyad in al-Shifa (2:92-93) with a sound (sahih) chain, and also cited by Samhudi in Khulasat al-Wafa, Subki in Shifa' al-siqam, Qastallani in al-Mawahib al-laduniyya, Ibn Jama`a in Hidayat al-salik, and Haytami in al-Jawhar al-munazzam and Tuhfat al-zuwwar. See also Ibn `Abd al-Hadi in al-Sarim al-munki p. 244. Ibn Jama`a says in Hidayat al-salik (3:1381): "It is related by the two hafiz Ibn Bashkuwal and al-Qadi `Iyad in al-Shifa' after him, and no attention is paid to the words of those who, based on their idle desires, claim that it is forged.
The following is evidence of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal’s approval of tawassul through our beloved Prophet (peace & blessings upon him):  “Imam Ahmad made tawassul through the Prophet a part of every du`a according to the following report: `Ala’ al-Din al-Mardawi said in his book al-Insaf fi ma`rifat al-rajih min al-khilaf `ala madhhab al-Imam al-mubajjal Ahmad ibn Hanbal (3:456): “The correct position of the [Hanbali] madhhab is that it is permissible in one’s supplication (du`a) to use as one’s means a pious person, and it is said that it is desirable (mustahabb). Imam Ahmad said to Abu Bakr al-Marwazi: “yatawassalu bi al-nabi fi du`a’ih” (“Let him use the Prophet as a means in his supplication to Allah.”)  The same report is found in Imam Ahmad’s Manasik as narrated by his student Abu Bakr al-Marwazi. Similarly the lengthy wording of the tawassul according to the Hanbali madhhab as established by the hafiz Ibn `Aqil in his Tadhkira was cited fully by Imam Kawthari in his appendix to Shaykh al-Islam Taqi al-Din al-Subki’s al-Sayf al-saqil included in Kawthari’s edition of the latter.” (Source: http://www.sunnah.org/publication/encyclopedia/html/tawassul.htm)
And Imam Ahmad (reh.)considered Tawwasul permissable as is acknowledged by Shaykh Ibn Taymiyyah in his Qaidah al-jalilah. Interestingly, al-Albani also says: “Imaam Ahmad allowed tawassul by means of the Messenger alone, and others such as Imaam ash-Shawkaanee allowed tawassul by means of him and other Prophets and the Pious.” (Source: al-Albani, At-Tawassul, p. 38).  The pity is that while confirming the evidence regarding the aforesaid Tawassul, he still rejects it.  Such is the undue stubborness!
Al-Shawkani said, in Tuhfatul Dhakireen:
“And in this hadith is proof for the permissibility of tawassul through the Prophet [sal Allahu alayhi wasallam] to Allah (swt), with the conviction that the [actual] doer is Allah (swt), and that He is the Giver and the Withholder. What He wills is, and what He does not will, will never be.”

Ahl al-Sunna scholars have been doing tawassul after the death of the Prophet (Sal Allahu 'alayhi wasallam). For example, Hafidh Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani performed tawassul by the Prophet (Sal Allahu 'alayhi wasallam) in his poems known as "an-Nayyirat-us-Sab," as did his shaykh Zayn-ud-Din al-'Iraqi at the end of his poem in "Tafsiru Mufradat-il-Qur'an." Now the Wahhabi scholars are "teaching" Islam to these great scholars too and maligning them as "unislamic". Sunni scholars point out that there has never been a scholar who has called Hafidh Ibn Hajar or Hafidh al-'Iraqi "unIslamic," and Bilal Philips should correct his false accusations and make tawba to Allah.

Imam al Nawawi (reh.)(d.676 A.H.)  said in his Majmu (8/274) the book of description of Hajj, chapter of “Visiting the grave of Prophet (Peace be upon him): The one visiting should stand by facing towards the face of Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) and make him a means (tawassul) and seek his wasilah as intercession (shafa'at) towards the Lord.

Lastly, the four leading Imams of the Madhhabs are unanimous in their acceptance of Tawassul and its coherence.  Tawassul through the Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam), Awliya and righteous believers is not only permitted, but  rather recommended according to the four schools of Sunni jurisprudence.  Such  has been the mainstream belief upheld by scholars of this Ummah from the earliest generations of the Salaf and this has come down to us through the four Sunni Madhhabs in Fiqh. In the words of an Islamic scholar: “By assessing and ranking hadith, by cultivating a deep knowledge of the Arabic language, and by virtue of their great native intelligence, they are credited with having shaped the development of the fundamental systems of Muslim jurisprudence, avoiding the twin pitfalls of subjective rationalism and blind literalism. By doing so they not only protected their religion from chaos and disorder, but showed the Muslims, both ordinary and expert, the safest and most reliable ways of avoiding error in the understanding and practice of the divine law.”
To continue, Insha Allah...

No comments:

Post a Comment