Monday, December 15, 2014

A Brief Survey: Was Prophet (sal Allau alayhi wasallam) given the Knowledge of Unseen?

From the Layman’s Desk: Islamic Article No.18:

In the Name of Allah, Most Beneficent, Most Merciful.

Praise be to Allah, Lord of all the worlds, and blessings and peace of Allah upon His Prophet and Messenger Muhammad (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam), his Family and all his Companions.

Belief in the Unseen is central to the message of the Qur’ân, as stated Surah al-Baqara:2-3.  The unseen is a reality - concrete and irrefutable.  Unseen Knowledge simply does not refer to the knowledge which is ascertainable by Information Technology or through our five senses.   Unseen Knowledge means that knowledge which cannot be acquired by any creature by the senses of touch, taste, sight, sound and smell.  It is in relation to creatures that the term Unseen Knowledge is applied because for Allah, however, everything is “Seen”. 

Allah's knowledge is His divine attribute and not like the knowledge of humans. It is pre-eternally eternal and post eternally eternal and perfect and goes through no change at all, no beginning, no end. It does not have a starting point, was not granted by anyone, as of course Allah is the supreme Creator and Lord of the Worlds.  That is, Allah’s Essence and Attributes are are qadeem, azali, abadi; while that of His creation are haadith.   His Knowledge is unlike that of the creation. The Creator’s dhaat and sifaat are UNLIKE that of creation's. Laysa ka'mithlihi shayi.  Allah is our Creator and Sustainer.  Allah has FULL and ABSOLUTE knowledge of ABSOLUTELY everything about everything. Even before He created creation, He knew EVERYTHING about us. Time does not encompass Him or His attributes.  This is what is meant by Allah has knowledge of the unseen in "absolute terms".  He has knowledge over all of creation including the Best of Creation - Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam).
The Holy Quran has mentioned Ilm-e-Ghayb in several verses and has declared that this Knowledge is one of the Attributes of Allah:
010:20 Say thou, (O Muhammad)! The Knowledge of Unseen belongeth unto Allah alone.
006.059 And with Him are the keys of the Invisible. None but He knoweth them. And He knoweth what is in the land and the sea. Not a leaf falleth but He knoweth it, not a grain amid the darkness of the earth, naught of wet or dry but (it is noted) in a clear record.     
035.038 Lo! Allah is the Knower of the Unseen of the heavens and the earth. Lo! He is Aware of the secret of (men's) breasts.
049.018 Lo! Allah knoweth the Unseen of the heavens and the earth. And Allah is Seer of what ye do.    
The above verses among others in Qur’an Shareef indicate that the Knowledge of Unseen belongs exclusively to Allah Ta'ala (swt). Nobody on his own has any share in it or any power to controvert and refute it.   None can possess this Divine Treasure.  His knowledge is total, unbound and is His own.
Despite the uncontroverted evidence of Allah’s Absolute Knowledge of the Unseen, the Deobandis have no qualms in stating their FALSE BELIEF: Almighty Allah Taãla is not always 'all knowing'.   He finds out whenever necessary.  (Taqwiyatul Iman pg. 26).  
Quranic Verses show that Allah did give Part of Unseen Knowledge to Anbiya (a.s.)
It needs to be categorically stated that as far as the knowledge of the unseen is concerned, it is Ahlus Sunnah’s Aqida that ALL prophets of Allah possess knowledge of it in accordance with what Allah has bestowed on them.  The above-mentioned Quranic verses have nowhere indicated Allah Ta'ala to say that He does not grant this Knowledge of Unseen to anybody.  Allah (swt) says in the holy Qur’an that it is only through His will that His knowledge can be encompassed and has also granted this knowledge of the unseen to the Apostles and Prophets as He wants and up to what He want.  He does reveal the secret of the Unseen to his chosen Messengers and He does not withhold or grudge revealing the Unseen.  
The Holy Quran has mentioned at various places that Allah Ta'ala has granted the Knowledge of Unseen to His exalted Prophets.  See Surah Baqarah, 2:31; Surah Baqarah, 2: 251; Surah Naml, 27:16; Surah Ambiya, 21:74; Surah Yusuf, 12:68; Surah Yusuf, 12:96; Surah Qasas, 28:14.  Allah the Almighty has honoured His apostles with unseen knowledge in proportion to to what He willed, for guidance and enlightenment to cope with the circumstances and situations confronting them viz-a-viz the enemies of Allah, and to fulfill the mission assigned to them. These phenomena have been illustrated at various places in the Holy Quran:
1.   Regarding Hazrat Adam (alaihis salaam) and the Angels, it is said: "He (Allah) taught the names (nature and qualitative attributes) of all the things and placed them before the Angels". [Surah Baqarah: Verse 31]  How many names did Allah teach Adam? It is said that Allah taught Adam the names, all of them but not to the extent of the knowledge of Allah. It is also said that Allah asked the angels to tell Him these names if they are truthful. but in verse 32 we see that the angels are not aware of them when they said ‘we have no knowledge except what You taught us’.  Then Allah told Hazrat Adam (a.s.) to ‘inform them of these names’.  Therefore, the part of knowledge taught by Allah to Adam (a.s.) is higher than the one taught by Him to the angels.
2.   Regarding Hazrat Da'ud (alaihis salaam), it is said, "He (Allah) gave Da'ud power and wisdom and taught him whatever (else) He willed." [Surah Baqarah: Verse 251]  So Da’ud (a.s.) had the part of knowledge directly from Allah. 
3.   In respect of the Ilm-i-Ghayb to Hazrat Sulaiman (alaihis salaam), it is said, "O People! We have been taught the speech of the birds, and on us has been bestowed (a little of) all things." [Surah Namal, Verse 16]
4.   For Hazrat Lut (alaihis salaam), it is said, "And to Lut We gave Judgement and Wisdom." [Surah Anbiya, Verse 34] It is clear that it was Allah who gave knowledge to Lut a.s.
5.   About Hazrat Yaqub (alaihis salaam) it was said, "He was, by Our instructions full of Knowledge (and experience), but most men know not." [Surah Yusuf, Verse 96]  Hazrat Yaqub (alaihis salaam) himself told his sons about this blessing from Allah thus, "Did I not say to you, I know from Allah that which you know not." [Surah Yusuf, Verse 96]  And again in 12:68:  “And when they entered in the manner which their father had enjoined, it would have naught availed them as against Allah, it was but a need of Ya’qub’s soul which he thus satisfied and no doubt He was a possessor of knowledge because We had taught him but most of mankind know not.” Here too, it is crystal clear that it is Allah (swt) who taught Yaqub (a.s.) partial ilm-e-ghayb wash shahadah. The common people are not aware of the extent of this knowledge. 
6.   About Hazrat Yusuf (alaihis salaam), it is said, "When Yusuf attained his full manhood, We gave him Power and Knowledge; thus do We reward those who do the right things." [Surah Yusuf, Verse 22] 
7.   On another ocassion, Hazrat Yusuf (alaihis salaam) spoke to his fellow prisoners before telling them the meaning of their dreams. He said, "Before any food comes to you, I shall surely reveal to you the truth and meaning of this. It is due to the knowledge bestowed upon me by Allah that I have to reveal to you what you did not know." [Surah Yusuf, Verse 37]  That is, Hazrat Yusuf would tell his people the colour, type, taste, quantity and the time of arrival of the food before the food would be given to them and it was exactly the same.
8.   Regarding Hazrat Musa (alaihis salaam), it is said, "When he reached full age and was firmly established (in life), We bestowed on him Wisdom and Knowledge." [Surah Qasas, Verse 140] In other words, the knowledge was given by Allah.  
9.   And will make him a messenger unto the Children of Israel: Lo! I come unto you with a sign from your Lord: Lo! I fashion for you out of clay the likeness of a bird, and I breathe into it and it is a bird by Allah's leave, I heal him who was born blind, and the leper, and I raise the dead, by Allah's leave. And I announce unto you what you eat and what you store up in your houses. Lo! Herein verily is a portent for you, if you are believers.[Surah Aal-e-Imran, Verse 49]
9.So Hazrat Isa came unto the Children of Israel with the signs from the Lord as mentioned in the said verse which ends with ‘no doubt, therein is a sign for you, if you are believers’ meaning that it is a sign for the believers that a Nabi has been given some kinds of ‘ilm and that Hazrat Isa has been taught by Allah to execute the above acts. It is a sign for the believers that Hazrat Isa possessed a kind of ‘ilm that we, ordinary Muslims, don’t possess.   It is a sign for the believers that Allah grants part of His ‘ilm to those He wants.  Again, if you are not believers then you will raise doubts as to the capacity and Ilm of Ambiya a.s.  A believer doesn't do this.  But naturally, such miracles are by permission of Allah. 
10.               Regarding Khidhr (a.s.) it is mentioned in the Qur’an, Surah Kahf: They found one of our worshippers whom we had given from our Self, and We had taught him knowledge directly from Our presence. (18:65)  Without going into the question whether Khidhr (a.s.) is a Prophet or a Wali, it is important to note that it was Allah who taught him the knowledge of unseen directly.  He knew part of ilm ul-Ghayb given to him by Allah, relating to the events of the boat, the lad, and the wall as mentioned in the Holy Qur’an and he imparted the same to Musa a.s.   Imam Ibn al Jawzi al hanbali (d.571 AH) writes in his tafsir  Zad al maseer fi ilm al tafseer:  “Allah gave knowledge of the unseen ( ilm e ghayb) to him ( khidhr alayhissalam).  Similar words have been used by Imam Tabari (d.310 AH) in his tafsir in which he writes that  Khidhr  alayhissalam  had ilm e ghayb ( knowledge of the unseen) given  to him by Allahu ta’ala.  Imam Baydawi (d.685 AH) writes in his Tafsir al-baydawi al-musamma anwar altanzil wa asrar that To Allah belongs the Knowledge of the Unseen and from this he has given some of the knowledge of the unseen ( ilm e ghayb) to Khidhr alyhis salam.  Imam at-Tabari, Imam al-Qurtubi and Qadi Shawkani quote the following narration:  "Ibn 'Abbas reported that al-Khidhr was a man who did all his work with the knowledge of the Ghayb because he knew the Ghayb"  [Tafsir Tabari; Tafsir Qurtubi; Qadi Shawkani, Tafsir Fath al-Qadir.]  The above statement of a Sahabi is a narration which is accepted by leading and reputable classical authorities. Many other tafsir book and fatwa books affirm that Allah gave knowledge of the unseen (ilm e ghayb) to prophets and also to Khidhr alayhis salam.    It is thus permissible to say that Khidr knew the Ghayb.  Hadrat Khidr (a.s.) came to know of the future condition of the child he executed (if the child lived, he would be insolent). How then can anyone’s condition be hidden from the Leader of all Prophets (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam)?
11.               Hadrat Nuh (a.s.) knew the condition of the coming generation of his Urnmah by saying, “O Allahعزوجل If they were to have children, they would also be Kaafirs.  “Wa Lā Yalidū 'Illā Fājirāan Kaffārā” - Suroh Nooh, Verse 27 -  Therefore drown them.”  And how can it possibly be wrong to say that Prophet Muhammad (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) also knows the Ghayb?
12.       “Thus did We show Abraham the kingdom of the heavens and the earth..” Surah Anaam, Verse 75.
Tafseer Khaazin commentates on this ayat, “Hadrat Ibraheem (a.s.) was made to stand on a rock and the heavens were opened for him. He then saw the Arsh, Kursi and whatever is in the heavens. Thereafter, the earth was opened for him and he was able to see the beneath the earth and the wonders they possess.”
Tafseer Madaarik states, “Imam Mujaahid ® states, “The Seven Heavens were opened for Hadrat Ibraheem (a.s.) and he saw whatever was in the heavens, being able to see even the Arsh. The Seven Earths were also opened for him and he saw whatever they possessed.”
Allama Ismail Haqqi writes, “Hadrat Ibraheem (a.s.) was shown the wonders and marvels of the heavens and earths, even the furthest point of the Arsh, and the most bottom part of the earth (Tahtas-Saraa).” – Tafseer Roohul-Bayaan.
Tafseer Ibn Jareer states, “All visible and discreet things were made open for Hadrat Ibraheem (a.s.) even the actions and deeds of the creation.”
Imam Raazi writes, “Allahعزوجل split the heavens for Hadrat Ibraheem (a.s.) and he was able to see the Arsh, Kursi and until the end of the worldly realm. He also saw all those splendors present in the heavens and in the earth.” – Tafseer Kabeer.

PROPHET’S (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) KNOWLEDGE OF UNSEEN

Muslims have unanimously agreed that being acquainted with the unseen is among the miracles of the Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) and it is obligatory to believe in all what he has conveyed from His Lord the Most High. The holy Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) bestowed this knowledge of unseen to his companions who in turn passed on this knowledge to the qualified persons who were entrusted with the mission to propagate the religion of Allah to succeeding generations.  All the matters of life in the grave after death [barzakh] and the Hereafter were thus transmitted to us and, therefore, we must believe in them.

Proof from the Qur’an that the Prophet Muhammad [sal Allahu alayhi wasallam] has been given some part of the knowledge of Ghayb:

Taught man that which he knew not. (96:5)

The above verse from Surah ‘Alaq says Allah taught Man that which he knew not.  For sure, mankind did not learn directly from Allah here.  As we know this Surah was revealed to Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) in the Cave of Hira and in fact is the first Surah of the Holy Qur’an to be so revealed.  This means that Allah imparted the knowledge of all that Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) knew not.  Allah thus bestowed part of Ilm-e-Ghayb to his beloved Messenger (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam).  

“Nor will He disclose to you the secrets of the Unseen. But He chooses of His Apostles (For the purpose)” [Surah-Ale-Imran, verse 179.

“It is not Allah’sعزوجل glory to divulge the knowledge of the unseen to you, 0 common people. Yes, Allahعزوجل chooses whoever He wishes from His Messengers.”  Qadhi Baydawi writes in the commentary of this ayat, “Allahعزوجل does not grant Ilm-e-Ghaib to any of you which means that  He does not make everybody aware of their infidelity (kufr) and Imaan present in their hearts.  However, Allahعزوجل chooses whoever He wishes for His prophethood, bestows revelation (wahi) unto him and either grants enlightenment over certain unseen things or provides proofs for him which are supported by the knowledge of these unseen things.” 
Tafseer Khaazin states, “But Allahعزوجل chooses whoever He wants from His Messengers and makes him aware of the knowledge of certain ghaib.” 2.31
Imam Raazi writes. “But knowing these unseen things by having been made aware of them is the uniqueness of the prophets.” - Tafseere-Kabeer
Tafseer Jumal states, “This means that Allahعزوجل chooses whoever He wants tc from His Messengers and informs him of the unseen.” 
Imam Suyuti writes, “Allahعزوجل does not inform you of the unseen so that you may know Hypocrites (Munaafiqs) before differentiating.  However, He selects whoever He wishes and informs him of the unseen, such as our Beloved Rasool (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) was informed of the affairs and conditions of the Hypocrites.” -Tafseer-Jalaalain
Allama Ismail Haqqi writes, “Because the unseen of truths and affairs do not become apparent without the mediation (waseela) of the Rasool (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) - Tafseer Roohul-Bayaan
Our Nabi (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) is the Chosen Messenger of Allah and as such, Allah has imparted some knowledge of Ghayb to him.

“…Allah has sent down to you the Book and Wisdom and has taught to you what you did not know, and great is the grace of Allah upon you.” [Surah Al-Nisa, Verse 113.] 
Clearly, the knowledge of Ghayb is a great favour and this favour has been granted to Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) by Allah (swt) to a great degree.  According to Tafsir Tabari the verse 4:113 proves that not a single thing in both worlds is left excluded from the knowledge of the Holy Prophet (sal Allahu alaihi wasallam). The word "Great Grace" verifies this fact. The Holy Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) was taught by Allah Ta'ala.  Imam Tabari writes under this verse: Allah TA’ALA has told the Prophet (May Allah bless him and grant him peace), you must thank Allah TA’ALA Who has informed you of what has already happened and what will happen in the future and this is a great grace of Allah upon you. 
Imam Jalal udin Suyuti Writes:  “Minal ahkaam wal Ghayb”. Translation: (Taught to you what you did not know) means that Allah Most High has told the Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) of Ahkam and Unseen.

“Neither doth he withhold grudgingly a knowledge of the Unseen.” [Surah Takwir 81:24]

 (i.e. Allah gave the knowledge of the hidden to the Holy Prophet sal Allahu alayhi wasallam.)  Now when Allah (not human beings BUT ALLAH HIMSELF) says that our Nabi (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) ‘is not ungenerous of the Unseen, this means that our Nabi (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) has knowledge of the Unseen (‘ilm ul Ghaib) and he used to spend, share, distribute, unveil it among his Companions.  

“The Knower of Unseen reveals not His secret to anyone, except to His chosen Messengers”. [Surah-Al-Jinn, verse 26.]

Al-Hafiz Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalani explained this verse thus:  It follows from this verse that Prophets can see some of the Unseen, and so do the saints (wali, pl. awliya’) that follow each particular Prophet also, as each takes from his Prophet and is gifted (yukram) with his knowledge. The difference between the two is that the Prophet looks at this knowledge through all kinds of revelation, while the saint does not look upon it except in dreams or through inspiration, and Allah knows best.
Ibn Hajar quotes al-Qurtubi’s words confirming this:
The truthful, righteous Muslim (al-muslim al-sadiq al-salih) is he whose state matches that of Prophets and thereby is bestowed (ukrima) some of the same kind of gift they were, and that is to behold the unseen (wa huwa al-ittila` `ala al-ghayb). As for the disbeliever (al-kafir), the corrupt person (al-fasiq), and the contentious one who confuses matters for the listeners (al-mikhlat) – then no! [Al-Qurtubi as quoted by Ibn Hajar in Fath al-Bari (1989 ed.) 12:449].

More Proof from the Qur'an that the Prophet Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) has been given the knowledge of al-Ghayb:

3. Allah Subhan Wa Taalah says in the Qur'an:

"These are the tidings of the Unseen that We reveal to you in secret"  [Sura al-Imran, verse 44]

"Nor will He disclose to you the secrets of the Unseen. But He chooses of His Apostles [for the purpose]" [Sura al-Imran, verse 179]

"They encompass nothing of His knowledge save what He will" (2:255).

Therefore, Allah allows the chosen Messengers (a.s.) to have part of ‘ilm ul-Ghaib.  Since prophet Muhammad (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) is among the chosen ones, he too, has part of ‘ilm ul Ghaib from Allah (swt)!

The above Qur’anic verses prove that the verses referring to Allah's Knowledge of Ghayb are Dhaati (Personal) Kulli (Absolute), whereas verses referring to creation’s knowledge are Ataai' (bestowed) and Baadh (partial).  Remember Allah has no limits (unlike what Bin Baaz Wahabi believed that Allah has a limit, Naudhobillah. It is they the wahabis who limit Allah's knowledge not us Ahlus Sunnah wa'l Jammah) and His knowledge cannot be comprehended even if all oceans were ink and all trees were Pens. Hence in no way is Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) being compared to Allah as some ignorant claim.

Regarding the ilm-e-ghayb, Al-Qadi `Iyad. said in al-Shifa': "His  knowledge of the unseen counts among those miracles of his that are known categorically and definitely, coming to us through mass transmissions with a vast number of narrators and congruent meanings." Calling the mu`jiza of his  (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) knowledge of ghayb "a wild claim" is kufr because that mu`jiza is mutawatir as established by Muhammad ibn Jafar al-Kattani (d.1927)  in Nazm al-mutanathir min al-hadith al-mutawatir (Min hady al-hadith al-nabawi #249)  In his discussion Hafiz al-Kattani cites al-Qadi `Iyad's statement in al-Shifa' that to know that the Prophet knew ghayb is part of obligatory knowledge in Islam i.e. the one who ignores it is not excused

Imam Ahmad al-Khafaji (d.1069) states, “All creation from Hadrat Adam a.s.  until the Day of Qiyaamat was presented before Rasoolullah (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam).  He then became cognizant of all of them just as how Hadrat Adam علیہ السلام was taught the names of all things.” - Naseemur-Riyaadh Sharh Shifaa.

These Quraanic verses reveal that Allah the Almighty has bestowed Ilm-i-Ghayb to His chosen Apostles.  To deny this, amounts to the denial and rejection of the Holy Quran itself. This is not an ordinary or routine knowledge.  Elaborate precautionary and protective measures are adopted before such messages relating to the "Unseen" are despatched. Special angels are sent (on earth) who stay around the Apostles, on whom the Knowledge of the Unseen (Ilm-i-Ghayb) is bestowed. [Surah Jinn, Verse 26.]  The grant of Ilm-i-Ghayb is admitted to be a great honour and whosoever of the Apostles are bestowed this Unique Divine blessing become the holders of great Divine Treasure. However, there is no uniform and set pattern of Divine Message transmitted to each recipient in accordance to their status.

We noted earlier: “Thus did We show Abraham the kingdom of the heavens and the earth..” [Surah Anaam, Verse 75].  We also pointed out the various commentaries thereon in Tafseer Khaazin, Tafseer ul-Madaarik, Rooh al-Bayaan, Tafseer ibn Jareer, and Tafseer Kabeer.  After this ayat and commentaries, it can be safely concluded that Hadrat Ibraheem (a.s.) was shown all things, from the lowest part of the earth to the Arsh, and was informed of the deeds of the creations. Due to the fact that the knowledge of Rasoolullah (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) is far more extensive than his, we will have to conclude that the Holy Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) has also been granted these branches of knowledge (uloom).  
The Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) has been granted with the knowledge of Allah and His Attributes, and the knowledge of Pen and Tablet as well as the world events, right from the beginning till the Last Day and even the Hereafter.  Commenting on a verse in Burdah Shareef, namely, (”fa inna min judika al dunya wa darrataha / wa min `ulumika `ilma al lawhi wa al qalami”) “For your generosity encompasses both this world and the one that comes next, and among your sciences is the knowledge of the Tablet and the Pen..”  Al Hafiz Ibn Hajar al-Haytami (909-974 A.H.) explicitly states: “And the sense in which knowledge of the Tablet and the Pen is part of some of his sciences, upon him blessings and peace, is that on the night of Isra', Allah Most High showed him everything that is in the Preserved Tablet and added to that other types of knowledge, such as the secrets which pertain to His Essence and Attributes, may He be exalted!"  Therefore, it is our belief that Allah Ta'ala had blessed Nabi Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam with the knowledge of the Tablet and Pen.   Hence, according to Islamic scholars the belief that Nabi Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam was granted the knowledge of the Tablet and Pen does not tantamount to shirk as the ignorant salafi's claim.  What we need to understand is that Allah granted His Beloved Messenger (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) tremendous knowledge of the Unseen, including details of matters of this life and the next and, compared to other creations,  He granted His Beloved (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) greater knowledge of Himself.  Hazrat Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani ® said about Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam): He is called the Total Intellect because he saw and understood everything.  (Sirr al-Asrar)  So everything that came to us from him consisting in news of the unseen is nothing other than the Divine disclosure to him as a proof for the actuality of his Prophethood and its truth.  
The Holy Quran is the elaboration of everything written on the Lawhe-Mahfooz. There is no doubt in it” – [Surah Yunus, Verse 37].  It can be deduced from this ayat and its commentaries that the Holy Quran contains Laws of the Shariah and all branches of knowledge. The Holy Quran minutely describes the Lawhe-Mahfooz, and branches of knowledge are present on the Protected Tablet. The Holy Prophet’s (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) knowledge also encompasses the Holy Quran. Therefore, all the knowledge of the Lawhe-Mahfooz is in his knowledge, because the Holy Quran is the elaboration of the Lawhe-Mahfooz.  Bear in mind that the Lawhe-Mahfooz also falls under the knowledge of the Arsh.  Therefore, the knowledge of what has occurred and what will (Maa Kaan wa Maa Yakoon) is also possessed by Hadrat Ibraheem (a.s.)  His knowledge and the knowledge of Hadrat Adam (a.s.) are drops in the ocean of knowledge possessed by our Holy Prophet Muhammad Mustafa (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam).
It is NOT permissible to say that Prophet's knowledge of unseen is equal or greater than that of Allah's knowledge. So that distinction must be observed.  However, it cannot be over-emphasized that according to the Righteous Islamic Scholars, knowledge of the Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wasallam) is vaster than that of any other human, but is acquired (by Allah’s granting) and is not absolute. According to Shaykh Ahmad Rida Khan, the Prophet's `ilm al-ghayb is partial (juz'i), non-exhaustive (ghayr ihati), bestowed (`ata'i) and not independent (ghayr istiqlali) as established once and for all by the Qur'anic verse {the knower of the Unseen, and He reveals unto none His secret save unto every messenger whom He has chosen} (72:26-27).

The said Quranic verses make it clear that Allah the Almighty is the Alim ul-Ghayb who bestows a part of the Knowledge of the Unseen (Ghayb) on His chosen servants.  It is unfortunate that most people do not know this.  On the contrary, even they refuse to believe it without realising the consequence thereof!

Continued in Part 2….


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